آموختن انگلیسی
1. I work in a post office.

2. Greg works in a bank.

3. They live in Washington.

4. I eat breakfast at 8:00 a.m.

5. She goes to work at 9:00 a.m.

6. Eddy plays basketball every Friday.

7. Penny starts class at 10:00.

8. I don't drink beer.

Are you a letter carrier?

Is he a teller?

Are they senators?

What do you eat?

Where does she work?

Where does he play?

When does she finish?

Why (not)?

No, I'm a postal clerk.

Yes, he is.

No, they aren't.

(I eat) eggs, bacon, and toast.

In the cafeteria.

At the gym.

At 11:00.

I don't like it.

 

1. من در یک اداره پست کار می کنم.

2. گِرگ در بانک کار می کند.

3. آنها در واشنگتن زندگی می کنند.

4. من ساعت 8 صبح صبحانه می خورم.

5. او ساعت 9 صبح سر کار می رود.

6. اِدی هر روز بسکتبال بازی می کند

7. پنی کلاس را ساعت 10 شروع می کند.

8. من آبجو نمی خورم.

شما نامه رسان هستید ؟

او تحویلدار بانک است ؟

آنها سناتور هستند ؟

شما چی می خورید ؟

او کجا کار میکند ؟

کجا بازی می کند ؟

(او) چه ساعتی تمام می کند ؟

چرا (نه) ؟

نه ، من یک کارمند پستی هستم.

بله ، او تحویلدار است.

نه ، سناتور نیستند.

من تخم مرغ، بیکن و نان تست می خورم.

در کافی تریا کار می کند.

در سالن ورزش.

در ساعت 11.

اونو دوست ندارم.

+ نوشته شده در  2011/8/22ساعت 5:18 PM  توسط عبدالعلی  | 

1. What is your favorite color?

2. What's your favorite kind of music?

3. Favorite sport?

4. Do you have a lucky number?

5. What kind of food do you like best?

6. How about movies?

7. Who is your favorite movie star?

8. What city do you like most?

Purple.

I like pop music.

Kung fu.

Yes. It's eight.

I like Cantonese food.

Action.

Jackie Chan.

Hong Kong, of course!


1. رنگ مورد علاقه شما چیست ؟

2. چه نوع موسیقی مورد علاقه شماست ؟

3. ورزش مورد علاقه ؟

4. آیا عدد شانسی دارید ؟

5. چه نوع غذایی را از همه بیشتر دوست دارید ؟

6. در مورد فیلم های سینمایی چطور ؟

7. ستاره سینمای مورد علاقه شما کیست ؟

8. چه شهری را از همه بیشتر دوست دارید ؟

بنفش.

من موسیقی پاپ دوست دارم.

کونگ فو.

بله ، عدد هشت است.

من غذای کانتونیز دوست دارم.

اکشن.

جکی شان.

البته ، هنگ کنگ.

+ نوشته شده در  2011/8/22ساعت 11:39 AM  توسط عبدالعلی  | 

Introducing your family

معرفی کردن خانواده خودتان

This is my mother/mom.

(These are my parents)

This is my wife.

This is my husband.

این مادرم / مامانم است.

( اینها والدین (پدر و مادرم) هستند )

این همسرم ( خانمم ) است.

این شوهرم است.

There are five people in my family.
(My mother, my father, my older brother, my older sister, me, my younger brother.)

اعضاء خانواده من پنج نفر هستند.
( مادرم ، پدرم ، برادر بزرگترم ، خواهر بزرگترم ، من ، برادر کوچکترم. )

I have two brothers.
one brother is older (than me).
One is younger.

من دو برادر دارم.
یک برادر (از من) بزرگتر است.
یکی کوچکتر (جوانتر) است.

I have one sister.

من یک خواهر داردم.

I'm number three.

من سومی هستم. - من بچه سوم هستم.

Asking about family

پرسیدن در مورد خانواده

How many brothers and sisters do you have?

What number are you?

He's the oldest (of five children).

She's the youngest.

Cindy doesn't have any brothers or sisters.

Jared is an only child.

How many children do you have?

Do you have any kids?

No, I'm not married.

چند تا برادر و خواهر دارید ؟

شما چندمی هستید ؟

او ( در بین پنج بچه ) بزرگترین است.

او کوچکترین است.

سیندی هیچ برادر یا خواهری ندارد.

جرد تنها فرزند است.

شما چند فرزند دارید ؟

شما بچه دارید ؟

نه من ازدواج نکرده ام.

 

+ نوشته شده در  2011/8/22ساعت 11:36 AM  توسط عبدالعلی  | 


1. What is Ms. Chan doing?

2. What is he doing?

3. What are you doing?

4. Who is singing that song?

5. Who is washing the dishes?

6. Where are you going now?

She is writing a letter.

He’s playing hockey.

I’m reading a book.

Frank (is).

The children are.

I’m going to the library.

Oh. That’s nice.

That’s interesting.

Is it interesting?

Oh. It sounds good.

That’s great.

Okay. Have fun.


1. خانم چان داره چی کار می کنه ؟

2. او داره چی کار میکنه ؟

3. شما دارید چه کار می کنید ؟

4. چه کسی دارد آن آواز را می خواند ؟

5. کی داره ظرفها رو می شوره ؟

6. الان کجا داری می ری ؟

او دارد یک نامه می نویسد.

او داره هاکی بازی می کنه.

من دارم کتاب می خونم.

فرانک می خواند.

بچه هستند.

دارم می رم کتابخانه.

اوه ، خوبه.

اون جالبه.

جالبه ؟

اوه. خوب به نظر می رسد.

اون عالیه.

باشه. شاد باشید

+ نوشته شده در  2011/8/21ساعت 4:26 PM  توسط عبدالعلی  | 

How's the weather today?

How do you feel?

How are you feeling?

Is everything okay?

What's wrong?

What's the matter?

Are you all right?

What happened?

It's really cold.

I'm fine.

Not too good.

I feel sick.

I have a headache.

My leg hurts.

I cut my hand.

He broke his arm.

Let's stay inside.

That's good.

Sorry to hear that.

That's too bad.

Here's some aspirin

Let me help you.

That looks serious.

Call 911!

 

امروز هوا چطور است ؟

چه احساسی دارید ؟

چی حس می کنید ؟

همه چیز خوب است ؟

چی شده ؟

موضوع چیست ؟

شما خوب هستید ؟

چه اتفاقی افتاده ؟

واقعا سرد است.

خوبم.

خیلی خوب نیستم.

احساس می کنم. مریض هستم.

سردرد دارم.

پایم صدمه دیده است.

دستم را بریدم.

بازویش شکسته است.

اجازه بدهید داخل بمانیم.

خوب است.

از شنیدنش متاسفم.

خیلی بد است.

اینجا آسپرین هست ؟

اجازه دهید کمکتان کنم.

به نظر جدی می رسد.

تلفن کن به 911

+ نوشته شده در  2011/8/21ساعت 4:24 PM  توسط عبدالعلی  | 

1. Where are the magazines?

2. Where is the remote control?

3. Where did you put the keys?

4. Where's the spider?

5. Where's Fluffy?

6. Where's Troy's toy truck?

7. Where did you find the book?

They're in the living room, on the coffee table.

It's probably on the sofa, between the pillows.

I think they're in the bedroom, in the top drawer.

It's in the bathroom, next to the bathtub.

He's probably hiding under the rocking chair.

It's outside by the big brick bridge.

It was on top of the refrigerator.

 

1. مجله ها کجا هستند ؟

2. کنترل از راه دور کجاست ؟

3. کلید ها را کجا گذاشتید ؟

4. عنکبوت کجاست ؟

5. فلافی کجاست ؟

6. کامیون اسباب بازی تروی کجاست ؟

7. کتاب را کجا پیدا کردید ؟

در اتاق نشیمن روی میز قهوه هستند.

احتمالا ، روی کاناپه بین بالش هاست.

در اتاق خواب ، در کشوی بالایی هستند.

داخل حمام ، جنب وان حمام است.

او احتمالا زیر صندلی راحتی پنهان شده است.

اون بیرون در کنار پل آجری بزرگ است.

اون روی یخچال بود

+ نوشته شده در  2011/8/21ساعت 4:23 PM  توسط عبدالعلی  | 

1. When is your birthday?

2. What year?

3. Were you born and raised here?

4. Did Sam grow up here?

5. Where did Lisa go to school?

6. Which university did Rick go to?

7. When will she graduate?

8. When did they get married?

9. When was your son born?

10. What day is your wedding anniversary?

11. When did they move to Pittsburgh?

12. When did his grandfather pass away/(die)?

December 29(th)

That's personal.

No. I wasn't.

Yes, he did.

In California.

Princeton.

Next April.

They got married in June.

Two months ago.

It's July 17th

Last September.

Five years ago.

 

1. تولد شما کی است ؟

2. چه سالی ؟

3. آیا شما در اینجا به دنیا آمده اید و بزرگ شده اید ؟

4. آیا سام در اینجا بزرگ شد ؟

5. لیزا کجا به مدرسه رفت ؟

6. ریک به کدام دانشگاه رفت ؟

7. کی فارغ التحصیل خواهد شد ؟

8. آنها کی ازدواج کردند ؟

9. پسر شما کی به دنیا آمده ؟

10. سالگرد عروسی شما چه روزی است ؟

11. آنها کی به پیتسبرگ نقل مکان کردند ؟

12. پدر بزرگش کی مرحوم شد ؟

29 دسامبر

این شخصیه.

نه ، اینطور نیست.

بله ، او اینجا بزرگ شد.

در کالیفرنیا.

پرینستون.

آوریل آینده.

آنها در ماه جون ازدواج کردند.

دو ماه قبل.

هفدهم جولای است.

سپتامبر گذشته.

پنج سال پیش.

+ نوشته شده در  2011/8/21ساعت 4:22 PM  توسط عبدالعلی  | 

Thank you all.

Thank you very much. Thank you.

Thank you very much.

Good evening, my fellow Americans. I appreciate so very much the opportunity to speak with you tonight.

Mr. Speaker, Lieutenant Governor, friends, distinguished guests, our country has been through a long and trying period, with the outcome of the presidential election not finalized for longer than any of us could ever imagine.

Vice President Gore and I put our hearts and hopes into our campaigns. We both gave it our all. We shared similar emotions, so I understand how difficult this moment must be for Vice President Gore and his family.

He has a distinguished record of service to our country as a congressman, a senator and a vice president.

This evening I received a gracious call from the vice president. We agreed to meet early next week in Washington, and we agreed to do our best to heal our country after this hard-fought contest.

Tonight I want to thank all the thousands of volunteers and campaign workers who worked so hard on my behalf.

I also salute the vice president and his supports for waging a spirited campaign. And I thank him for a call that I know was difficult to make. Laura and I wish the vice president and Senator Lieberman and their families the very best.

I have a lot to be thankful for tonight. I'm thankful for America and thankful that we were able to resolve our electoral differences in a peaceful way.

I'm thankful to the American people for the great privilege of being able to serve as your next president.

I want to thank my wife and our daughters for their love. Laura's active involvement as first lady has made Texas a better place, and she will be a wonderful first lady of America.

I am proud to have Dick Cheney by my side, and America will be proud to have him as our next vice president.

Tonight, I chose to speak from the chamber of the Texas House of Representatives because it has been a home to bipartisan cooperation. Here in a place where Democrats have the majority, Republicans and Democrats have worked together to do what is right for the people we represent.

We've had spirited disagreements. And in the end, we found constructive consensus. It is an experience I will always carry with me, an example I will always follow.

I want to thank my friend, House Speaker Pete Laney, a Democrat, who introduced me today. I want to thank the legislators from both political parties with whom I've worked.

Across the hall in our Texas capitol is the state Senate. And I cannot help but think of our mutual friend, the former Democrat lieutenant governor, Bob Bullock. His love for Texas and his ability to work in a bipartisan way continue to be a model for all of us.

The spirit of cooperation I have seen in this hall is what is needed in Washington, D.C. It is the challenge of our moment. After a difficult election, we must put politics behind us and work together to make the promise of America available for every one of our citizens.

I'm optimistic that we can change the tone in Washington, D.C.

I believe things happen for a reason, and I hope the long wait of the last five weeks will heighten a desire to move beyond the bitterness and partisanship of the recent past.

Our nation must rise above a house divided. Americans share hopes and goals and values far more important than any political disagreements.

Republicans want the best for our nation, and so do Democrats. Our votes may differ, but not our hopes.

I know America wants reconciliation and unity. I know Americans want progress. And we must seize this moment and deliver.

Together, guided by a spirit of common sense, common courtesy and common goals, we can unite and inspire the American citizens.

Together, we will work to make all our public schools excellent, teaching every student of every background and every accent, so that no child is left behind.

Together, we will save Social Security and renew its promise of a secure retirement for generations to come.

Together, we will strengthen Medicare and offer prescription drug coverage to all of our seniors.

Together, we will give Americans the broad, fair, and fiscally responsible tax relief they deserve.

Together, we'll have a bipartisan foreign policy true to our values and true to our friends, and we will have a military equal to every challenge and superior to every adversary.

Together, we will address some of society's deepest problems one person at a time, by encouraging and empowering the good hearts and good works of the American people.

This is the essence of compassionate conservatism and it will be a foundation of my administration.

These priorities are not merely Republican concerns or Democratic concerns; they are American responsibilities.

During the fall campaign, we differed about the details of these proposals, but there was remarkable consensus about the important issues before us: excellent schools, retirement and health security, tax relief, a strong military, a more civil society.

We have discussed our differences. Now it is time to find common ground and build consensus to make America a beacon of opportunity in the 21st century.

I'm optimistic this can happen. Our future demands it and our history proves it. Two hundred years ago, in the election of 1800, America faced another close presidential election. A tie in the Electoral College put the outcome into the hands of Congress.

After six days of voting and 36 ballots, the House of Representatives elected Thomas Jefferson the third president of the United States. That election brought the first transfer of power from one party to another in our new democracy.

Shortly after the election, Jefferson, in a letter titled "Reconciliation and Reform," wrote this: "The steady character of our countrymen is a rock to which we may safely moor; unequivocal in principle, reasonable in manner. We should be able to hope to do a great deal of good to the cause of freedom and harmony."

Two hundred years have only strengthened the steady character of America. And so as we begin the work of healing our nation, tonight I call upon that character: respect for each other, respect for our differences, generosity of spirit, and a willingness to work hard and work together to solve any problem.

I have something else to ask you, to ask every American. I ask for you to pray for this great nation. I ask for your prayers for leaders from both parties. I thank you for your prayers for me and my family, and I ask you to pray for Vice President Gore and his family.

I have faith that with God's help we as a nation will move forward together as one nation, indivisible. And together we will create an America that is open, so every citizen has access to the American dream; an America that is educated, so every child has the keys to realize that dream; and an America that is united in our diversity and our shared American values that are larger than race or party.

I was not elected to serve one party, but to serve one nation.

The president of the United States is the president of every single American, of every race and every background.

Whether you voted for me or not, I will do my best to serve your interests and I will work to earn your respect.

I will be guided by President Jefferson's sense of purpose, to stand for principle, to be reasonable in manner, and above all, to do great good for the cause of freedom and harmony.

The presidency is more than an honor. It is more than an office. It is a charge to keep, and I will give it my all.

Thank you very much and God bless America.
+ نوشته شده در  2011/8/21ساعت 4:21 PM  توسط عبدالعلی  | 

This can be used to practice Count and Non-count nouns in context.

این می تواند در متن برای تمرین اسامی قابل شمارش و غیر قابل شمارش بکار رود.

When talking about non-count items (such as sugar, water, toothpaste, etc.),
it is common to use measure words to indicate how much of the substance you are referring to.

هنگامی که درباره موارد غیر قابل شمارش (مانند شکر ، آب ، خمیر دندان ، غیره) صحبت میکنیم،
متداولتر است که کلمات اندازه گیری را بکار برید. معین کنید به چه مقدار از این موارد اشاره می کنید.

Below are a few examples of measure words used in English.

در زیر چندین مثال از کلمات اندازه گیری به کار گرفته شده در انگلیسی می آیند.



Food

A bowl of rice

A dish of spaghetti

A pound of meat/cheese

A piece of cake/pie

A can of soup

A box of cereal

A bag of flour

A carton of ice cream

A jar of peanut butter

A loaf of bread

A slice of bread/pizza

A package of pasta

A dash of salt

A cube of ice

A pack of gum

A head of lettuce/cabbage

An ear of corn

A kernel of corn

A grain of wheat/salt

A stalk of celery

A spear of asparagus

A clove of garlic

Liquid

A teaspoon of medicine

A tablespoon of vinegar

A glass of water

A cup of coffee

A pint of blood

A quart of milk

A half gallon of juice

A gallon of punch

A tank of gas

A jug of lemonade

A bottle of wine

A keg of beer

A shot of vodka

A drop of rain

Personal items

A bar of soap

A tube of toothpaste

A container of shampoo

A stick of deodorant

A bottle of perfume/cologne

A roll of toilet paper

A ball of cotton

Sewing items

A spool of thread

A skein of yarn

A yard/meter of ribbon

A (square) foot/meter of fabric/cloth

Stationery

A piece of paper

A pad of paper

A roll of tape

A stick/piece of chalk

A bottle/tube of glue

A jar of paste

A pair of scissors


Notes:

تذکرات :

1. Measure words can also be counted:
one slice of toast, two slices of toast, etc.

1. کلمات اندازه گیری همچنین می توانند شمارش شوند.
یک تکه (قطعه) تست ، دو تکه (اسلایس) تست ، غیره.

2. Some items can be either count or non-count, depending on composition or arrangement. For example,

A bar of chocolate (non-count [perceived as one solid item])
A box of chocoloates (count [perceived as several individual items])

2. بعضی اقلام هم می توانند قابل شمارش و غیر قابل شمارش باشند ، بستگی دارد به ترکیب و ترتیب. برای مثال ،

یک بار (میله) شکلات (غیرقابل شمارش [ اگر مورد جامدی به شمار آید ] )
یک جعبه شکلات (قابل شمارش [ اگر به صورت چندین قلم مجزا مشاهده شود ] )

+ نوشته شده در  2011/8/21ساعت 4:20 PM  توسط عبدالعلی  | 

Introducing your family

معرفی کردن خانواده خودتان

This is my mother/mom.

(These are my parents)

This is my wife.

This is my husband.

این مادرم / مامانم است.

( اینها والدین (پدر و مادرم) هستند )

این همسرم ( خانمم ) است.

این شوهرم است.

There are five people in my family.
(My mother, my father, my older brother, my older sister, me, my younger brother.)

اعضاء خانواده من پنج نفر هستند.
( مادرم ، پدرم ، برادر بزرگترم ، خواهر بزرگترم ، من ، برادر کوچکترم. )

I have two brothers.
one brother is older (than me).
One is younger.

من دو برادر دارم.
یک برادر (از من) بزرگتر است.
یکی کوچکتر (جوانتر) است.

I have one sister.

من یک خواهر داردم.

I'm number three.

من سومی هستم. - من بچه سوم هستم.

Asking about family

پرسیدن در مورد خانواده

How many brothers and sisters do you have?

What number are you?

He's the oldest (of five children).

She's the youngest.

Cindy doesn't have any brothers or sisters.

Jared is an only child.

How many children do you have?

Do you have any kids?

No, I'm not married.

چند تا برادر و خواهر دارید ؟

شما چندمی هستید ؟

او ( در بین پنج بچه ) بزرگترین است.

او کوچکترین است.

سیندی هیچ برادر یا خواهری ندارد.

جرد تنها فرزند است.

شما چند فرزند دارید ؟

شما بچه دارید ؟

نه من ازدواج نکرده ام.

 

+ نوشته شده در  2011/8/21ساعت 3:58 PM  توسط عبدالعلی  | 

Tag questions are used when seeking confirmation of what one believes to be true. They restate, in question form, the previously spoken sentence. For example,
    He is an engineer. Isn’t he?
    They’re not from Colorado. Are they?
    Zack is really tired. Isn’t he?

    She is going to Taiwan, isn’t she?
    You have never been to Las Vegas. Have you?
    The Rays are playing the Jays. Aren’t they?

    You went to the supermarket. Didn’t you?
    Zane doesn’t live in Missouri. Does he?
    Ms. Zeller has a new car. Doesn’t she?

    (Positive statement, negative tag)
    (Negative statement, positive tag)
    (Positive statement, negative tag)

    (Positive statement, negative tag)
    (Negative statement, positive tag)
    (Positive statement, negative tag)

    (Positive statement, negative tag)
    (Negative statement, positive tag)
    (Positive statement, negative tag)


In tag questions, the corresponding pronoun and the first verb of the corresponding yes/no question are used. Also, notice that with positive statements, negative tag questions are used and vice versa. See also: Grammar: Yes/No Questions

Common mistakes:

    You are the zookeeper. Yes
    You’re the zookeeper. Aren’t you?

    You come from Canada. No?
    You come from Canada. Don’t you?

    You’re the boss. Are you?
    You’re the boss. Are you?

    Simon is from Singapore. Isn’t it?
    Simon is from Singapore. Isn’t he?

    (Incorrect)
    (Correct)

    (Incorrect)
    (Correct)

    (Incorrect-in most situations)
    (Correct)

    (Incorrect)
    (Correct)

Some modals can be used in tag questions: can, will, would, could, should and must.

    Mr. James will be at the ceremony. Won’t he?
    They couldn’t do it. Could they?

Note: When the subject is “I” and the statement is in present tense, aren’t is commonly used for tag questions.

    I’m the winner. Aren’t I?
    I’m the winner. Am I not?
    (Common usage)
    (Formal)

+ نوشته شده در  2011/8/21ساعت 3:56 PM  توسط عبدالعلی  | 

1. What will you do tomorrow?

2. When will you finish?

3. What will we do in class today?

4. Where will they put the table?

5. When will Joe leave for New York?

6. How will he get there?

I'll help my mom with the housework.

In the afternoon.

We'll play some word games.

They'll put it next to the window.

He'll leave right after dinner.

He'll take the bus.

 

1. فردا چکار می کنی ؟

2. کی تمام می کنی ؟

3. امروز در کلاس چه کار خواهیم کرد ؟

4. آنها میز را کجا می گذارند ؟

5. جو چه موقع به طرف نیویورک حرکت خواهد کرد ؟

6. او چطور به آنجا می رود ؟

من به مادرم در کارهای خانه کمک می کنم.

بعداز طهر.

ما کمی بازی کلمات خواهیم کرد.

آنها آنرا در کنار پنجره خواهند گذاشت.

او درست بعد از شام خواهد رفت.

او با اتوبوس می رود. - او اتوبوس می گیرد.


Note: Another way of talking about the future is with the phrase "be going to" + verb.
For example,

تذکر : یک راه دیگر صحبت کردن در مورد آینده استفاده از "قصد داشتن" + فعل است.
برای مثال ،

I am going to eat out tonight.
Mr. Wolfe is going to stay home.

من قصد دارم امشب بیرون غذا بخورم.
آقال ولف در خانه خواهد ماند.

What are you going to do tomorrow?
I'm going to visit my grandmother.

فردا قصد دارید چه کار کنید ؟
من می خواهم به دیدن مادربزرگ بروم.

How are you going to get there?
I'm going to walk through the forest.
Please be careful!

چگونه می خواهید به آنجا بروید ؟
می خواهم از میان جنگل راه بروم.
لطفا مراقب باشید!

+ نوشته شده در  2011/8/21ساعت 3:55 PM  توسط عبدالعلی  | 

1. What did you do last Friday?

2. Where did you go?

3. When did you get back?

4. Where did you stay?

5. What did Sally have for lunch?

6. What did he eat last night?

7. How was the weather?

I went to a baseball game.

I went to Detroit.

I got back on Saturday night.

I stayed with my parents.

She had soup and sandwiches.

He ate Chinese food.

It was wonderful.


 

1. شما روز جمعه گذشته چکار کردید ؟

2. شما کجا رفتید ؟

3. چه موقع برگشتید ؟

4. شما کجا اقامت کردید ؟

5. سالی برای ناهار چه خورد ؟

6. او دیشب چه خورد ؟

7. هوا چطور بود ؟

من به یک بازی بیس بال رفتم.

من به دیترویت رفتم.

من شنبه شب برگشتم.

من با والدینم اقامت کردم.

او سوپ و سانودیچ خورد.

او غذای چینی خورد.

هوا عالی بود.

 

 

 

 

 

 

+ نوشته شده در  2011/8/21ساعت 3:53 PM  توسط عبدالعلی  | 

In the sample conversations below, R is the "Receiver" and C is the "Caller."

در مکالمات نمونه زیر ، R "طرف مقابل" و C "کسی که زنگ زده" است.

Conversation 1

مکالمه 1

Rrrrring.

R: Hello.
C: Hello. Is Steve there?
R: I'm sorry. He's not here right now.
C: What time will he be back?
R: Around five thirty.
C: This afternoon?
R: Yes. May I ask who's calling?
C: This is his friend, Greg.
R: Okay. I'll tell him you called.
C: Thanks.

R: سلام.
C: سلام. استو آنجاست.
R: متاسف. او (همین) الان اینجا نیست.
C: چه ساعتی بر می گردد ؟
R: در حدود پنج و نیم.
C: امروز بعدازظهر ؟
R: بله. ممکن است بپرسم کی زنگ می زنه ؟
C: من دوستش ، گِرگ هستم.
R: بسیار خوب. به او خاهم گفت که شما زنگ زدید.
C: متشکرم.

Conversation 2

مکالمه 2

Rrrrrring.

R: Tyler residence.
C: Is this Naomi?
R: No, this is her sister, Nancy.
C: You sure sound like Naomi.
R: Oh. Can I take a message?
C: Sure. Please tell her that Andy called.
R: Okay. I'll give her the message.
C: Thanks.
R: Bye.

R: محل اقامت تایلر.
C: شما نوآمی هستید ؟
R: نه من خواهرش نانسی هستم.
C: صدای شما واقعا شبیه نوآمی است.
R: اوه. می توانم برایش پیغام بگذارم ؟
C: حتما. لطفا به او بگویید که اندی زنگ زده.
R: بسیار خوب. پیغام را به او خواهم داد.
C: متشکرم.
R: خداحافظ.

+ نوشته شده در  2011/8/21ساعت 3:49 PM  توسط عبدالعلی  | 

1. How do you get to work?

2. How long does it take?

3. How often do you ride the bus?

4. Do you ever walk to work?

5. Are you going anywhere this summer?

6. How are you going to get there?

7. Why don't you fly?

I usually drive my car.

It takes half an hour.

Once in a while.

No, that would take forever.

Probably to Jacksonville.

By train.

Airplane tickets are too expensive.

 

1. شما چطوری سر کار می روید ؟

2. چقدر طول می کشه ؟

3. هر چند وقت یکبار اتوبوس می رانید ؟

4. آیا هرگز پیاده سر کار رفته اید ؟

5. امسال تابستان جایی می روید ؟

6. چطوری قصد دارید (خیال دارید) آنجا بروید ؟

7. چرا با هواپیما نمی روید ؟

من معمولا با ماشین می روم.

نیم ساعت طول می کشد.

فقط هر چند وقت.

نه ، یک عالمه طول می کشد.

احتمالا به (جکسون ویل) می رویم.

بوسیله قطار.

بلیط های هواپیما خیلی گران است.

 

+ نوشته شده در  2011/8/21ساعت 3:39 PM  توسط عبدالعلی  | 

What time is it

الان چه وقت است ؟

7:00

12:00

3:10

7:14

9:15

1:21

11:05

2:09

6:30

4:50

10:45

8:35

It's seven o'clock.

It's twelve o'clock.

It's three ten.

It's seven fourteen.

It's nine fifteen.

It's one twenty-one

It's eleven oh five.

It's two oh nine.

It's six thirty.

It's four fifty.

It's ten forty-five.

It's eight thirty-five.

It's seven p.m. / a.m.

It's noon / midnight.

It's ten (minutes) after three.

It's fourteen after seven.

It's (a) quarter after nine.

It's twenty-one minutes past one.

It's five after eleven.

It's nine minutes past two.

It's half past six.

It's ten minutes to five.

It's quarter to eleven.

It's twenty-five minutes to nine.

 

7:00

12:00

3:10

7:14

9:15

1:21

11:05

2:09

6:30

4:50

10:45

8:35

ساعت هفت است.

ساعت دوازده است.

ساعت سه و ده دقیقه است.

ساعت هفت و چهارده دقیقه است.

ساعت نه و پانزده دقیقه است.

ساعت یک و بیست و یک دقیقه است.

ساعت یازده و پنج دقیقه است.

ساعت دو و نه دقیقه است.

ساعت شش و سی دقیقه است.

ساعت چهار و پنجاه دقیقه است.

ساعت ده و چهل و پنج است.

ساعت هشت و سی و پنج است.

ساعت هفت بعد از ظهر / صبح است.

الان ظهر / نیمه شب است.

ساعت ده (دقیقه) بعد از سه است.

ساعت چهارده دقیقه از هفت گذشته است.

ساعت نه و ربع است.

ساعت بیست و یک دقیقه بعد از یک است.

ساعت پنج دقیقه گذشته از یازده است.

ساعت نه دقیقه از دو گذشته است.

ساعت شش و نیم است.

ساعت ده دقیقه به پنج است.

ساعت یک ربع مانده به یازده است.

ساعت بیست و پنج دقیقه به نه است.







 

 

+ نوشته شده در  2011/8/21ساعت 3:38 PM  توسط عبدالعلی  | 

A. Hello!   It is me!

B. Oh, hi!  How are you?

A. Fine. Tell me, what you are doing this afternoon?

B. I am not sure I will stay at home and read a book. How about you?

A. Well I am planning to go to the playground and play ball would you like to join me.

B. Yes I would to play ball with you than stay at home and read a book

A. Good! I will wait for you.

B. Thanks bye……….

                                                                                                 

What did you do at home yesterday?

I studied English and played football.

 

Did you have time to write the letter?

Yes, but I can not wrote it hope that absolve me.

 

Did you go out last night?

Yes, I went to the cinema.

 

What did you see there?

Nothing just I watched a movie.

 

Where were you living last year?

I was living in Kabul.

                                                                                                 

 Whom did you invite to the party?

I invited my best friend Roshan.

 

Why did you close the door?

Because it is windy.

 

How old he was when he died?

He was (20) years old when he died.

 

Which position did you get in the class?

I got the second position in the class.

 

Where are you going now?

I am going to the bazaar.

+ نوشته شده در  2011/8/21ساعت 3:3 PM  توسط عبدالعلی  | 

Farid and Studying

A: Hello, Farid how are you

B: Thanks, Ahmad; I am Okay, What about you?

A: Not bad, where are you going

B: See! These are my books and note books, I am going to course.

A: Excellent! What do you study there

B: My brother, I study English and math.

A: English

B: Yes, I do study English.

A: But you can speak it!

B: I do speak it, but I am improving my English, It is useful.

A: How

B: Look! Here we have some new and modern programs.

A: Oh! You are studying new words conversational sentences every day, you are right, it is modern system.

B: Of course, yes

A: I am going with you I have problem with my speaking.

B: Do you join our class

A: Yes, I will.

B: What about Jamshid

A: He doesn’t study English.

B: Why

A: He Knows English.

B: OK our class starts at four and finished at five.

A: Let’s go.

+ نوشته شده در  2011/8/21ساعت 2:57 PM  توسط عبدالعلی  | 

The second world war was began, and John wanted to join the army, but he was only sixteen years old, and boys were allowed to join the army if they were eighteen years old, so when the doctor of the army examined him ,he said that he was eighteen years old.

But John’s brother joined the army a few days before, and the same doctor was examined him too, this doctor remembered the old boys family name, so when he saw Johns papers he surprised and said how old are you ?

Eighteen years old sir.

But your brother was eighteen years old too, are you twin?

Oh no sir and his face got red and said my brother is five months older than me

Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4

Words:

1.     Examine

2.     Army

3.     Allow

4.     Before

5.     Surprised

6.     Ask

7.     Face

8.     Twin

9.     Older

10. Remember

+ نوشته شده در  2011/8/21ساعت 2:56 PM  توسط عبدالعلی  | 

Spring is the first Season of the year, The weather is beautiful and nice in this season and the nature has wonderful views, Flowers, Trees and green grasses make nature nicer, People go sightseeing in different places such as Salang, Balkh, Paghman and etc. spring contains three months, The first day of this season is called new year and people celebrate this day.

In this season the weather is rainy and rain makes us to feel more comfortable than other seasons of the year.

In this season schools start, students go to school, workers work hard, at the end we can say that spring of every year change our life.

 

1.    Season

2.    Beautiful

3.    Different

4.    sightseeing

5.    contain

6.    New year

7.    Celebrate 

8.    Comfortable

9.    worker

+ نوشته شده در  2011/8/21ساعت 2:52 PM  توسط عبدالعلی  | 

241

Where did you go yesterday?

242

I went to see a friend of mine.

243

Did you see Mr. Jones yesterday?

244

I didn’t see Mr. Jones, but I saw John Smith.

245

What did you talk about?

246

We talked about a lot of things.

247

I asked him a lot of questions.

248

What did you ask him?

249

I asked him if he spoke English.

250

He said he spoke a little English.

251

Then I asked him if he knew anybody in New York.

252

He said he knew a lot of people there.

253

Finally, I asked him how old he was.

254

He said he would rather not tell his age.

255

He answered almost all of my questions.

+ نوشته شده در  2011/8/21ساعت 2:45 PM  توسط عبدالعلی  | 

226

What time did you get up yesterday morning?

227

I woke up early and got up at 6 o’clock.

228

My brother got up earlier than I did.

229

Did you get dressed right away?

230

Yes, I got dressed and had breakfast.

231

What kind of breakfast did you have?

232

What time did you get to work yesterday morning?

233

I left the house at 8 o’clock and got to work at 8:30.

234

Did you work all day?

235

Yes, I worked from early morning until late at night.

236

At noon I had lunch with a friend of mine.

237

I finished working at 5:30 and went home.

238

After dinner I read a magazine and made some telephone calls.

239

I went to bed at 11:30 p.m.

240

I went to sleep immediately and slept soundly all night.

+ نوشته شده در  2011/8/21ساعت 2:43 PM  توسط عبدالعلی  | 

196

How old are you?

197

I’m twenty-one years old.

198

My brother is not quite twenty-five.

199

John is not fourty-five yet, is he?

200

Mr. Smith is still in his fifties.

201

I’m two years older than you are.

202

My brother is two years younger than I am.

203

How many are there in your family?

204

There are seven of us altogether.

205

My sister is the oldest.

206

I’m the youngest.

207

Guess how old I am.

208

I’d say you’re about twenty-three.

209

I was thirty on my last birthday.

210

I’m going to be sixty-one next Tuesday.

+ نوشته شده در  2011/8/21ساعت 2:41 PM  توسط عبدالعلی  | 

Making Subjects and Verbs Agree

This handout gives you several guidelines to help your subjects and verbs agree.

1. When the subject of a sentence is composed of two or more nouns or pronouns connected by and, use a plural verb.
She and her friends are at the fair.

2. When two or more singular nouns or pronouns are connected by or or nor, use a singular verb.
The book or the pen is in the drawer.

3. When a compound subject contains both a singular and a plural noun or pronoun joined by or or nor, the verb should agree with the part of the subject that is nearer the verb.
The boy or his friends run every day.
His friends or the boy runs every day.

4. Doesn't is a contraction of does not and should be used only with a singular subject. Don't is a contraction of do not and should be used only with a plural subject. The exception to this rule appears in the case of the first person and second person pronouns I and you. With these pronouns, the contraction don't should be used.
He doesn't like it.
They don't like it.

5. Do not be misled by a phrase that comes between the subject and the verb. The verb agrees with the subject, not with a noun or pronoun in the phrase.
One of the boxes is open
The people who listen to that music are few.
The team captain, as well as his players, is anxious.
The book, including all the chapters in the first section, is boring.
The woman with all the dogs walks down my street.

6. The words each, each one, either, neither, everyone, everybody, anybody, anyone, nobody, somebody, someone, and no one are singular and require a singular verb.
Each of these hot dogs is juicy.
Everybody knows Mr. Jones.
Either is correct.

7. Nouns such as civics, mathematics, dollars, measles, and news require singular verbs.
The news is on at six.

Note: the word dollars is a special case. When talking about an amount of money, it requires a singular verb, but when referring to the dollars themselves, a plural verb is required.
Five dollars is a lot of money.
Dollars are often used instead of rubles in Russia.

8. Nouns such as scissors, tweezers, trousers, and shears require plural verbs. (There are two parts to these things.)
These scissors are dull.
Those trousers are made of wool.

9. In sentences beginning with there is or there are, the subject follows the verb. Since there is not the subject, the verb agrees with what follows.
There are many questions.
There is a question.

10. Collective nouns are words that imply more than one person but that are considered singular and take a singular verb, such as: group, team, committee, class, and family.
The team runs during practice.
The committee decides how to proceed.
The family has a long history.
My family has never been able to agree.

In some cases, a sentence may call for the use of a plural verb when using a collective noun.
The crew are preparing to dock the ship.

This sentence is referring to the individual efforts of each crew member. The Gregg Reference Manual provides excellent explanations of subject-verb agreement (section 10: 1001).

11. Expressions such as with, together with, including, accompanied by, in addition to, or as well do not change the number of the subject. If the subject is singular, the verb is too.
The President, accompanied by his wife, is traveling to India.
All of the books, including yours, are in that box.

+ نوشته شده در  2011/8/21ساعت 10:45 AM  توسط عبدالعلی  | 

Count and Noncount Nouns: Basic Rules
Adjectives with Countable and Uncountable Nouns
The Basic Rules: Count and Noncount Nouns

A count noun is one that can be expressed in plural form, usually with an "s." For example, "cat—cats," "season—seasons," "student—students."

A noncount noun is one that usually cannot be expressed in a plural form. For example, "milk," "water," "air," "money," "food." Usually, you can't say, "He had many moneys."
Count and Noncount Nouns with Adjectives

Most of the time, this doesn't matter with adjectives. For example, you can say, "The cat was gray" or "The air was gray." However, the difference between a countable and uncountable noun does matter with certain adjectives, such as "some/any," "much/many," and "little/few."

Some/Any: Some and any countable and uncountable nouns.
"There is some water on the floor."
"There are some Mexicans here."
"Do you have any food?"
"Do you have any apples?"

Much/Many: Much modifies only uncountable nouns. Many modifies only countable nouns.
"We don't have much time to get this done."
"Many Americans travel to Europe."

Little/Few: Little modifies only uncountable nouns.
"He had little food in the house."
"The doctor had little time to think in the emergency room."

Few modifies only countable nouns.
"There are few doctors in town."
"Few students like exams."
Other basic rules

A lot of/lots of:A lot of/lots of are informal substitutes for much and many. They are used with uncountable nouns when they mean much and with countable nouns when they mean many.
"They have lots of (much) money in the bank."
"A lot of (many) Americans travel to Europe."
"We got lots of (many) mosquitoes last summer."
"We got lots of (much) rain last summer."

A little bit of:A little bit of is informal and always precedes an uncountable noun.
"There is a little bit of pepper in the soup."
"There is a little bit of snow on the ground."

Enough: Enough modifies both countable and uncountable nouns.
"There is enough money to buy a car."
"I have enough books to read."

Plenty of: Plenty of modifies both countable and uncountable nouns.
"They have plenty of money in the bank."
"There are plenty of millionaires in Switzerland."

No: No modifies both countable and uncountable nouns.
"There is no time to finish now."
"There are no squirrels in the park."

+ نوشته شده در  2011/8/21ساعت 10:42 AM  توسط عبدالعلی  | 

ENGLISH PROVERBS
Life is just a bowl of cherries   
   
Life is full of happiness and pleasure
       

Like a bull in a china shop   
   
A clumsy or tactless person
       

Lock the stable door after the horse has bolted   
   
Once a mistake has been made or an error committed, it's too late to take precautions to prevent it from happening.
       

The longest day must have an end   
   
All difficult jobs or situations also have an end.
       

Losers weepers, finders keepers   
   
If someone loses something, he weeps -- but if someone finds it, he keeps it.
       

Love me, love my dog   
   
If we want a person's friendship we must accept him totally, faults and all.
       

Many hands make light work   
   
Many people sharing a job or tasks make easier work of it.
       

The mountain labors and brings forth a mouse   
   
To work hard and long on a project that turns out to be pretty useless.
       

Opportunity only knocks once   
   
Seize an opportunity when it occurs for it may never happen again.
       

An ounce of prevention is better than a pound of cure   
   
It is even better to be cautious and prevent a misfortune or an accident from happening.
       

Possession is nine points of the law   
   
In disputes over property ownership, the person in possession of something is sometimes said to have nine-tenths a chance of winning it in a legal argument
       

Promises are like pie crust   
   
Most promises cannot be kept
       

Put a quart into a pint pot         Doing something that's impossible
           

The rain falls on the just and the unjust alike         No matter how good or bad a person, he must still face the everyday problems that confront us all.
           

The sins of the fathers will be visited upon the children         People will be punished for the wrongs committed by their parents, forefathers, or those who have preceded them.
           

Someone's bark is worse than his bite         People sometimes bark but in time we learn they're not always as frightening as they seem.
           

The spirit is willing but the flesh is weak         To do something unworthy just because it gives you the pleasure
           

A stitch in time saves nine         By taking immediate action we can prevent a fault, damage or trouble from getting worse
           

A straw will show which way the wind blows         A small incident can reveal an important event
           

Teach an old dog new tricks         It is impossible to change someone's ways or habits, especially if he is old and resists change
           

That's where the shoe pinches         That's the source or cause of a problem or an annoyance
           

There are none so blind as those that will not see         People ,who never admit they might be wrong, refuse to listen to the opinions or ideas of anyone
           

There are none so deaf as those who will not hear         People sometimes hear only what they want to hear
           

There's more than one way to skin a cat         There is more than one way of getting a job done
           

The thin end of the wedge         That something can appear to be small and of no particular importance - yet it can turn out to be the beginning of a major problem.
           

A thing of beauty is a joy forever         It means that though something beautiful may not last, the happy memory of it will live forever.
           

Time heals old wounds         The passing of time helps us to forget things that have caused us pain or made us unhappy.
           

The truth will out         Truth about something will eventually be discovered or made known
           

Turn up like a bad penny         Something or someone disliked just won't go away
           
Two wrongs do not make a right         If a person does something to harm or offend us, that's wrong. If we do something to harm them back, that's wrong too.
           

Uneasy is the head that wears the crown         Notable or important people are often concerned about losing their positions.
           

Waste not, want not         If we're careful and waste nothing we'll never go without things we need.
           

The way to a man's heart is through his stomach         Most men love to eat so feed your husband well and he will always love you.
           

Wear out one's welcome         One is no longer welcome, usually because he has become a nuisance
           
When poverty comes in the door, love flies out the window         As soon as a happily married couple begin having financial problems and the bills pile up their love will disappear.
           

Who keeps company with wolves, will learn to howl         If we associate with bad companions we, too, will become bad
           

You pays your money and you takes your chances         A humorous way of saying that we sometimes must trust in luck when buying something.
           

Prosperity makes friends, adversity tries them         If you are rich and successful, you will attract many friends, but if you should suffer hardship or have misfortune ( adversity ), your friends will quickly depart

+ نوشته شده در  2011/8/21ساعت 10:39 AM  توسط عبدالعلی  | 

مونه مکالمات انگلیسی

برای نمونه مکالمات بیشتر بر روی لینک های زیر کلیک کنید. موفق باشید

When it comes to haggling

It seems to be catching on

I'm up for that

I'll pass

You're bound to ...

It's cost me a fortune

Showing me the ropes

It's my treat

That'll be the day

In a jiffy

In the buff

Take a load off my mind

Up the creek

Got some balls

We've got a flat

So hard on him

Stay out of the kitchen

Time lag

Stood me up

No reservation in your name

Could you speak up a bit

Things are a bit hectic

She's covering for Fredrick

Leaving things to the last minute

He's taken the day off

We're open from 9:00 am to 5:00 pm

What time you'll be done

Don't have anyone by that name

Command of Chinese and English

I don't quite follow you

 

Conversation 01

Conversation 02

Conversation 03

Conversation 04

Conversation 05

Conversation 06

Conversation 07

Conversation 08

Conversation 09

Conversation 10

Conversation 11

Conversation 12

+ نوشته شده در  2011/8/20ساعت 6:33 PM  توسط عبدالعلی  | 

برای خواندن داستان های بیشتر بر روی لینک ها ی زیر که نام داستان ها هستند،کلیک کنید.

 

Certain winds from the South (1)

A Conversation from the Third Floor (1)

 

 

Certain winds from the South (2)

A Conversation from the Third Floor (2)

 

 

Certain winds from the South (3)

The Bridegroom (1)

 

 

Certain winds from the South (4)

The Bridegroom (2)

 

 

The Apprentice (1)

The Bridegroom (3)

 

 

The Apprentice (2)

The Betrayal (1)

 

 

The Apprentice (3)

The Betrayal (2)

 

 

The Will of Allah (1)

Protista (1)

 

 

The Will of Allah (2)

Protista (2)

 

 

The Will of Allah (3)

Protista (3)

 

 

Civil Peace (1)

The Coffee-Cart Girl (1)

 

 

Civil Peace (2)

The Coffee-Cart Girl (2)

 

 

The Gentlemen of the Jungle (1)

The Coffee-Cart Girl (3)

 

 

The Gentlemen of the Jungle (2)

Snapshots of a Wedding (1)

 

 

The Green Leaves (1)

Snapshots of a Wedding (2)

 

 

The Green Leaves (2)

Innocent

 

 

The Green Leaves (3)

Salt River Times (1)

 

 

The Spider's Web (1)

Salt River Times (2)

 

 

The Spider's Web (2)

Salt River Times (3)

 

 

The Spider's Web (3)

Looking for Rain God

 

 

Minutes of Glory (1)

The Sound Machine (1)

 

 

Minutes of Glory (2)

The Sound Machine (2)

 

 

Minutes of Glory (3)

The Sound Machine (3)

 

 

Minutes of Glory (4)

The Drover's wife

 

 

Minutes of Glory (5)

The Necklace (1)

 

 

An Incident in the Ghobashi Household (1)

The Necklace (2)

 

 

An Incident in the Ghobashi Household (2)

The Lotus eater

 

 

A Handful of Dates (1)

The False Prophet (1)

 

 

A Handful of Dates (2)

The False Prophet (2)

 

 

 

The False Prophet (3)

+ نوشته شده در  2011/8/20ساعت 6:28 PM  توسط عبدالعلی  | 

Interjections

Hi! That's an interjection. :-)

"Interjection" is a big name for a little word. Interjections are short exclamations like Oh!, Um or Ah! They have no real grammatical value but we use them quite often, usually more in speaking than in writing. When interjections are inserted into a sentence, they have no grammatical connection to the sentence. An interjection is sometimes followed by an exclamation mark (!) when written.

Here are some interjections with examples:

interjection meaning example
ah expressing pleasure "Ah, that feels good."
expressing realization "Ah, now I understand."
expressing resignation "Ah well, it can't be heped."
expressing surprise "Ah! I've won!"
alas expressing grief or pity "Alas, she's dead now."
dear expressing pity "Oh dear! Does it hurt?"
expressing surprise "Dear me! That's a surprise!"
eh asking for repetition "It's hot today." "Eh?" "I said it's hot today."
expressing enquiry "What do you think of that, eh?"
expressing surprise "Eh! Really?"
inviting agreement "Let's go, eh?"
er expressing hesitation "Lima is the capital of...er...Peru."
hello, hullo expressing greeting "Hello John. How are you today?"
expressing surprise "Hello! My car's gone!"
hey calling attention "Hey! look at that!"
expressing surprise, joy etc "Hey! What a good idea!"
hi expressing greeting "Hi! What's new?"
hmm expressing hesitation, doubt or disagreement "Hmm. I'm not so sure."
oh, o expressing surprise "Oh! You're here!"
expressing pain "Oh! I've got a toothache."
expressing pleading "Oh, please say 'yes'!"
ouch expressing pain "Ouch! That hurts!"
uh expressing hesitation "Uh...I don't know the answer to that."
uh-huh expressing agreement "Shall we go?" "Uh-huh."
um, umm expressing hesitation "85 divided by 5 is...um...17."
well expressing surprise "Well I never!"
introducing a remark "Well, what did he say?
+ نوشته شده در  2011/8/20ساعت 6:25 PM  توسط عبدالعلی  | 

Say or Tell?

Say and tell have similar meanings. They both mean to communicate verbally with someone. But we often use them differently.

The simple way to think of say and tell is:

  • You say something
  • You tell someone something

You say something

You tell someone something

Ram said that he was tired.

Ram told Jane that he was tired.

Anthony says you have a new job.

Anthony tells me you have a new job.

Tara said: "I love you."

Tara told John that she loved him.

But, of course, it is not always so easy. Here are a few rules to help you.

Personal object
We usually follow tell with a personal object (the person that we are speaking to). We usually use say without a personal object:

  • She told me that she loved John.
  • She said that she loved John.
  • He told everybody that he had to leave.
  • He said that he had to leave.

Say "to someone"
With say, we sometimes use "to someone":

  • He said to me that he was tired.
  • Tara said to Ram that he had done very well.
  • Anthony said to her, "I hope you come soon."
  • "I'd like to sleep," she said to him quietly.

Direct speech
We can use say with direct speech. We use tell only with direct speech that is an instruction or information:

  • Amanda said, "Hello John. How are you?"
  • "That's great'" she said.
  • He told her: "Open the door quietly."
  • She told me, "I have never been to England."

We can use say with direct questions, but we cannot use tell:

  • She said: "Do you love me?"
  • The policeman said to the prisoner, "Where were you at 8pm?"

Reported speech
We can use say and tell to talk about reported information:

  • She said that it was raining.
  • She told me that she would call at 2pm.

We cannot use say or tell to talk about reported questions. We must use ask (or a similar verb):

  • She asked if I had ever been there.
  • They asked what I wanted to eat.
  • She asked where he lived.
  • He asked if she wanted to go home.

Orders, advice
We use tell + object + infinitive for orders or advice:

  • She told him to sit down.
  • They told me not to wait.
  • Tell Neil to have a holiday and forget her.

Phrases
Here are a few fixed phrases with tell. We cannot use say with these phrases:

  • tell (someone) a story
  • tell (someone) a lie
  • tell (someone) the truth
  • tell the future (= to know what the future will bring)
  • tell the time (= know how to read a clock)

Right and wrong
Read these examples of correct and incorrect usage:

These are NOT possible...

These are possible...

Tara said Jo to go away.

Tara told Jo to go away.

Tookta told to me that she was coming.

Tookta told me that she was coming.

Tookta said to me that she was coming.

Siriluck always says lies.

Siriluck always tells lies.

Ram told Nok: "Let's turn on the TV."

Ram said to Nok: "Let's turn on the TV."

(Ram told Nok, "Turn on the TV.")

(Ram told Nok: "I was born in 1985.")

She said if I wanted to come.

She asked if I wanted to come.

Tookta told what I wanted to do.

Took asked what I wanted to do.

+ نوشته شده در  2011/8/20ساعت 6:23 PM  توسط عبدالعلی  | 

suffix

grammatical change

example
original word

example
suffixed word

-s

plural

dog

dogs

-en

plural (irregular)

ox

oxen

-s

3rd person singular present

like

he likes

-ed

past tense
past participle

work

he worked
he has worked

-en

past participle (irregular)

eat

he has eaten

-ing

continuous/progressive

sleep

he is sleeping

-er

comparative

big

bigger

-est

superlative

big

the biggest

Derivational suffixes

With derivational suffixes, the new word has a new meaning, and is usually a different part of speech. But the new meaning is related to the old meaning - it is "derived" from the old meaning.

We can add more than one suffix, as in this example:

derive (verb) + tion = derivation (noun) + al = derivational (adjective)

There are several hundred derivational suffixes. Here are some of the more common ones:

suffix

making

example
original word

example
suffixed word

-ation

nouns

explore
hesitate

exploration
hesitation

-sion

persuade
divide

persuasion
division

-er

teach

teacher

-cian

music

musician

-ess

god

goddess

-ness

sad

sadness

-al

arrive

arrival

-ary

diction

dictionary

-ment

treat

treatment

-y

jealous
victor

jealousy
victory

-al

adjectives

accident

accidental

-ary

imagine

imaginary

-able

tax

taxable

-ly

brother

brotherly

-y

ease

easy

-ful

sorrow
forget

sorrowful
forgetful

-ly

adverbs

helpful

helpfully

-ize

verbs

terror
private

terrorize
privatize

-ate

hyphen

hyphenate

+ نوشته شده در  2011/8/20ساعت 6:23 PM  توسط عبدالعلی  | 

Positive Contractions

Notes

Be careful. Some contractions can have two or three meanings. For example, he'd can be he had or he would. It depends on the rest of the sentence. Look at these examples:

  • He'd like to go. (He would like to go.)
  • He'd finished when I arrived. (He had finished when I arrived.)

The contraction 's (= is or has) is not used only with pronouns. It can also be used with nouns, names, question words and words like "here" and "there", for example: The train's late. John's arrived. Where's the phone? Here's your change. There's a policeman.

Short form

Long form

I'm

I am

I've

I have

I'll

I will/I shall

I'd

I would/I should/I had

you're

you are

you've

you have

you'll

you will

you'd

you had/you would

he's

he has/he is

he'll

he will

he'd

he had/he would

she's

she has/she is

she'll

she will

she'd

she had/she would

it's

it has/it is

it'll

it will

we're

we are

we've

we have

we'll

we will

we'd

we had/we would

they're

they are

they've

they have

they'll

they will

they'd

they had/they would

+ نوشته شده در  2011/8/20ساعت 6:19 PM  توسط عبدالعلی  | 

Negative Contractions

Notes

With the verb "to be", two negative forms are possible - we aren't or we're not etc.

In questions, am not is contracted to aren't, for example: I'm late, aren't I?

Short form

Long form

aren't

are not

can't

cannot, can not

couldn't

could not

daren't

dare not

didn't

did not

doesn't

does not

don't

do not

hasn't

has not

haven't

have not

hadn't

had not

isn't

is not

mayn't

may not

mightn't

might not

mustn't

must not

needn't

need not

oughtn't

ought not

shan't

shall not

shouldn't

should not

wasn't

was not

weren't

were not

won't

will not

wouldn't

would not

+ نوشته شده در  2011/8/20ساعت 6:17 PM  توسط عبدالعلی  | 

Informal Contractions

Informal contractions are short forms of other words that people use when speaking casually. They are not exactly slang, but they are a little like slang.

For example, "gonna" is a short form of "going to". If you say "going to" very fast, without carefully pronouncing each word, it can sound like "gonna".

Please remember that these are informal contractions. That means that we do not use them in "correct" speech, and we almost never use them in writing. (If you see them in writing, for example in a comic strip, that is because the written words represent the spoken words or dialogue.) We normally use them only when speaking fast and casually, for example with friends. Some people never use them, even in informal speech.

It is probably true to say that informal contractions are more common in American English.

Also note that, unlike normal contractions, we do not usually use apostrophes (') with informal contractions when written.

On the right are some common informal contractions, with example sentences. Note that the example sentences may be a little artificial because when we use a contraction we may also use other contractions in the same sentence, or even drop some words completely. For example:

  • What are you going to do? >>
  • Whatcha going to do? >>
  • Whatcha gonna do?

or

  • Do you want a beer?
  • Do you wanna beer?
  • D'you wanna beer?
  • D'ya wanna beer?
  • Ya wanna beer?
  • Wanna beer?

These informal contractions are not "correct" English. Do not use them in a written exam, for example, except in appropriate situations.

  • ain't = am not/are not/is not
    I ain't sure.
    You ain't my boss.
  • ain't = has not/have not
    I ain't done it.
    She ain't finished yet.
  • gimme = give me
    Gimme your money.
    Don't gimme that rubbish.
    Can you gimme a hand?
  • gonna = going to
    Nothing's gonna change my love for you.
    I'm not gonna tell you.
    What are you gonna do?
  • gotta = (have) got a
    I've gotta gun.
    I gotta gun.
    She hasn't gotta penny.
    Have you gotta car?
  • gotta = (have) got to
    I've gotta go now.
    I gotta go now.
    We haven't gotta do that.
    Have they gotta work?
  • kinda = kind of
    She's kinda cute.
  • lemme = let me
    Lemme go!
  • wanna = want to
    I wanna go home.
  • wanna = want a
    I wanna coffee.
  • whatcha = what are you
    Whatcha going to do?
  • whatcha = what have you
    Whatcha got there?
  • ya = you
    Who saw ya?
+ نوشته شده در  2011/8/20ساعت 6:16 PM  توسط عبدالعلی  | 

What are you doing

I’m reading a book.

What’s your friend doing

He’s studying his lesson.

I’m not doing anything right now.

Where are you going

I’m going home.

What time are you coming back

I’m not sure what time I’m coming back.

What are you thinking about

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

I’m thinking about my lesson.

Who are you writing to?

I’m writing to a friend of mine in South America.

By the way, who are you waiting for

I’m not waiting for anybody.

+ نوشته شده در  2011/8/20ساعت 1:45 PM  توسط عبدالعلی  | 

 گلو: throat      قلب:heart       کیسه صفرا:gallbladder 

 

                               ستون فقرات:spinal column                    قفسه سینه :rib cage

 

      عصب:nerve   سیاه رگ:vein     سرخرگ:artery      استخوان:bone

 

  شش:lung   مغز:brain     کبد:liver       کلیه:kidney     مثانه: bladder

+ نوشته شده در  2011/8/20ساعت 1:28 PM  توسط عبدالعلی  | 

In the name of Allah Most Gracious Most Merciful

Look within and around you. Contemplate, ponder and think.God said in Quran 45 Verse 3 “...the heavens and the earth are full of signs for the believers..”.God, expressing His infinite love through nature so beautifully woven spreading on the face of the entire universe above and below.The beauty of it all just amazes me but have we ever take time to ponder?

When your love for God is immensely strong, you see God in all that you do, in all that there is and in all that ever will be.  Travelling to work 1 hour daily can be a hectic and tiring schedule for some.For me, it is a journey of new discoveries in the horizon pondering the signs of God. Awesome mountain view with formation of clouds clinging at its tip and carpets of green grass spreading the entire fields and trees emerging its bountiful leaves seems like an ‘eyemo’ to my sight. Its enchanting beauty is beyond imagination.Trees with coloured redolent flowers spreading all over its branches and clinging on to each other thus creating illuminating beauty and the wind that brushes the trees creating a rhapsody of rhyme lingering in my ears, branches clutching each other at the sides of the road forming a cave like quintessential sanctuary....just magnificent! Such is the vast richness and abundance of God’s creation. Such is His state of the art expressing His passion of lullaby beauty blossoming and cascading the entire universe.Suddenly, a sparkle of epiphancy transcend and triggers my heart from a mystical standpoint of view that can only be esoteric.

With faith in God and bonds that we bind with each other despite genders and religion, we will be able to create a peace filled world and a transformational multitudes of freedom, joy, unity, harmony and peace build so strongly none could separate us.This should be our legacy.A legacy we must carry from generation to generation. Generations that are filled with faith and wisdom.And with that, we shall prosper and be divinely guided if we cling on to God’s faith and with His infinite love shining upon us, we can move mountains.

As we lift our God consciousness, we know there is nothing that we cannot understand nor overcome or change. You know you have the power, strength and energy to do whatever you need to do, and the courage to move forward in faith.

Life is meant to be lived lovingly, abundantly, fully, joyously, positively, and victoriously just like the trees.Lift your consciousness and let your horizons expand to opening new possibilities. Be better than before; see more clearly the vast prosperity and abundance that is ready for you now. As you lift your vision and to the higher conciousness of God within you, you see the beauty and upliftment of a joyous life, and there is new light shining upon your path.Your path of wondrous values.Such is God’s infinite love for us.

“Lift your God consciousnss within you and your life will be filled with wondrous values”

By Sallina Ismail

+ نوشته شده در  2011/8/20ساعت 1:26 PM  توسط عبدالعلی  | 

سری بازی های آنلاین آموزش زبان

+ نوشته شده در  2011/8/20ساعت 1:6 PM  توسط عبدالعلی  | 

Describing People     توصیف اشخاص  

1.       Child-Children   بچه – بچه ها

2.       Baby/infant : نوزاد / کودک

3.       Toddler : نوپا

4.       Boy : پسر

5.       Girl : دختر

6.       Teenager : نوجوان

 

7.       Adult   بزگسال

8.       Man-men : مرد – مردان

9.       Woman-women : زن – زنان

10.   Senior citizen/Elderly person : شهروند ارشد / شخص سالمند

 

Age  سن

11.   Young : جوان

12.   Middle-aged : میان سال

13.   Old/Elderly : پیر / مسن

 ۰۰۹۳۷۹۶۱۶۲۷۵۲

+ نوشته شده در  2011/8/20ساعت 12:58 PM  توسط عبدالعلی  | 

1 – قبل از اوقات مشخص از روز.

in the morning                in the afternoon                  in the evening

 

2 – قبل از صفات عالی.

the biggest                    the greatest

 

3 – قبل از آلات موسیقی.

the piano

 

4 – قبل از کلمه ه ای تئاتر و سینما.

the theater                      the cinema

 

5 – قبل از اعداد ترتیبی.

the first                          the second

 

6 – در مواقع بیان مالکیت اشیاء . ( مضاف و مضاف الیه).

the wheels of the car                           the door of the house

 

7 – قبل از صفاتی که اشاره به یک گروه خاص دارند.

the lion                    the poor                       the rich                  the Indian

 

8 – قبل از اسامی سیاره ها.

the planet Mercury.                    

 

9 – قبل از اسامی منحصر به فرد در جهان.

the sun                the moon           the earth                the sky       the pyramids

 

10 – قبل از نام خانوادگی که به صورت جمع استفاده شده و به دو یا چند نفر از اعضای خانواده اشاره دارد.

the Johnsons                                   the Smiths

 

11 – قبل از اسامی مرتبط با رسانه ها.

the media                        the radio                   the newspaper

 

12 – قبل از طبقات اجتماعی .

the middle class               the elite                         the clergy

 

 

 

13 – قبل از اسامی مرتبط با حمل و نقل.

the bus                    the train                     the airplane               the subway

 

14 – قبل از اسامی روزنامه ها.

the Christian Science monitor           the Manchester Guardian

 

15 – قبل از گروه های سیاسی.

the Labor party                  the conservative party                 the communist party

 

16 – قبل از اسامی سازمان ها، موسسات و بنگاه ها.

the United Nations                the Ford Foundation

 

17 – قبل از عوامل اجرایی دولتی و نظامی.

the Army          the Navy            the air force        the State Militia     the Police

 

18 – قبل از عنوان های دولتی.

the secretary of state        the prime minister        the king           the mayor

 

19 – قبل از وقایع یا دوره های تاریخی.

The Middle Ages                         The Civil War                             The Renaissance

                          The First World War

20 – قبل از موقعیت های فیزیکی.

the top               the bottom                the center              the inside    the outside

 

21 – قبل از اسامی دانشگاه هایی که با حرف اضافه of توصیف شده اند .

the University of Notre Dame           the University Of Michigan

اما              Oxford University

 

22 – قبل از ساختمان ها.

the Empire State Building               the Coliseum

 

23 – قبل از اسامی هتل ها.

the Statler Hotel                  the Carlyle Hotel

 

24 – قبل از اسامی کتابخانه ها و موزه ها.

the Louvre            the Metropolitan Museum                          the Library of Congress

 

25 – قبل از پل ها ، تونل ها و برج های معروف.

the Brooklyn Bridge                 the Golden Gate Bridge               the Hudson Tunnel

 

the Eiffel Tower

26 – قبل از اسامی دریاها ، اقیانوس ها و خلیج ها.

the Gulf of Mexico            the Persian Gulf             the red sea      the Indian Ocean

 

27 – قبل از اسامی رشته کوه ها.

the Rocky Mountains               the Himalaya Mountains

اما              Mount Everest

 

28 – قبل از مجمع الجزایر.

 

 the Hawaiian Islands

اما                Coney Island

29 – قبل از جنگل ها ، بیابان ها ،شبه جزیره ها .

 the Sahara Desert           the Black Forest                   the Iberian Peninsula

 

30 – قبل از جهت های قطب نما ، نواحی جغرافیایی و نقاط کره ی زمین .

the South              the Middle West       the South Pole             The Equator

 

31 – قبل از اسامی رودخانه های معروف جهان.

the Nile             the Amazon

 

32 – قبل از اسامی کتب آسمانی یا خیلی مشهور.

the Bible             the Quran

 

33 – قبل از اسامی کشورهایی که به صورت متحده یا جمهوری اداره می شود.

 

The United States of America                  the Islamic Republic of Iran

+ نوشته شده در  2011/8/20ساعت 12:53 PM  توسط عبدالعلی  | 

سلام به همه ی دوستای خوب کلاس آموزش زبان انگلیسی

حتما خیلی از شما به دلیل تاخیر های زیاد در به روز کردن وبلاگ از من ناراحت هستید . راستشو بخواهید هم یه کم گرفتار بودم و هم از اینکه مطلبی بنویسم که فقط برای پرکردن فضای وب باشه خوشم نمیاد . 

خیلی وقته تو فکرم که یه پست خوب و مفید بنویسم که همه ازش استفاده کنن. گفتم حالا که تابستون داره میاد و همه وقت آزاد بیشتری دارن بهترین کار میتونه یه دوره تصویری آموزش خط باشه. این مجموعه شامل 26 ویدئو میباشد که به صورت خیلی زیبا به آموزش خط می پردازد . امیدوارم مفید باشه.

فرمت فایل ها flv میباشد . برای باز کردن از نرم افزار KMplayer استفاده کنید.

برای دریافت کافیه روی لینک های زیر کلیک کنید.

English Cursive Handwriting Letter A a

English Cursive Handwriting Letter B b

English Cursive Handwriting Letter C c

English Cursive Handwriting Letter D d

English Cursive Handwriting Letter E e

English Cursive Handwriting Letter F f

English Cursive Handwriting Letter G g

English Cursive Handwriting Letter H h

English Cursive Handwriting Letter I i

English Cursive Handwriting Letter J j

English Cursive Handwriting Letter K k

English Cursive Handwriting Letter L l

English Cursive Handwriting Letter M m

English Cursive Handwriting Letter N n

English Cursive Handwriting Letter O o

English Cursive Handwriting Letter P p

English Cursive Handwriting Letter Q q

English Cursive Handwriting Letter R r

English Cursive Handwriting Letter S s

English Cursive Handwriting Letter T t

English Cursive Handwriting Letter U u

English Cursive Handwriting Letter V v

English Cursive Handwriting Letter W w

English Cursive Handwriting Letter X x

English Cursive Handwriting Letter Y y

English Cursive Handwriting Letter Z z

+ نوشته شده در  2011/8/19ساعت 6:21 PM  توسط عبدالعلی  | 

سلام به دوستای خوب کلاس آموزش زبان انگلیسی

امیدوارم پست قبلی براتون مفید بوده باشه. 

پست امروز شامل 10 ویدئوی زیبا از اصطلاحات عامیانه زبان انگلیسیه که واقعا یکی از شیرینی های یادگیری زبانه . واسه خودم که خیلی جالبه. البته همه اونایی که زبان میخونن هم علاقه خاصی به یادگیری اصطلاحات دارن. امیدوارم خوشتون بیاد. اگه تمایل داشتین که به همین ترتیب ادامه بدم ، بهم خبر بدین.

واسه دانلود کردن کافیه روی لینک های زیر کلیک کنید.

واسه نمایش فایل ها از KM player استفاده کنید.

American Slang - Lesson 1

American Slang - Lesson 2

American Slang - Lesson 3

American Slang - Lesson 4

American Slang - Lesson 5

American Slang - Lesson 6

American Slang - Lesson 7a

American Slang - Lesson 7b

American Slang - Lesson 8a

American Slang - Lesson 8b

+ نوشته شده در  2011/8/19ساعت 6:19 PM  توسط عبدالعلی  | 

با سلام

حتما اطلاع دارین که چه اندازه مهمه که یه کلمه یا جمله انگلیسی را درست بیان کنید . دلیلش هم اینه که خیلی از مواقع اگه استرس رو درست و سر جای خودش قرار ندیم ممکنه کلمات یا جملاتمون واسه مخاطب نامفهوم باشه. اگه فکر میکنین کمی در این قسمت از زبان دارای مشکل هستید ، این پست و پست های بعدیشو به دقت دنبال کنید.

این مجموعه شامل 16 درسه که واسه هر هفته 4 درسشو اینجا میذارم.

کافیه روی هر درس کلیک کنید تا دانلود بشه.

فراموش نکنید که فایل ها با KM player  باز میشه.

English Pronunciation - WORD STRESS - Lesson 1 a

English Pronunciation - WORD STRESS - Lesson 1 b

English Pronunciation - WORD STRESS - Lesson 1 c

English Pronunciation - WORD STRESS - Lesson 1 d

+ نوشته شده در  2011/8/19ساعت 6:17 PM  توسط عبدالعلی  | 

بازم سلام

امیدوارم  تا اینجا مطالب براتون مفید بوده باشه. البته همین که الان اینجایین یعنی اینکه بد نبوده . پس اگه دوست دارین بهتر بشه نظرتون بیان کنید. میدونید که اینجام کلاسه و کلاس یه طرفه هم خوب از کار در نمیاد.

یادتون نره فایلو که دانلود کردین با KM player بازش کنید. 

English Pronunciation - WORD STRESS - Lesson 2 a

English Pronunciation - WORD STRESS - Lesson 2 b

English Pronunciation - WORD STRESS - Lesson 2 c

English Pronunciation - WORD STRESS - Lesson 2 d

+ نوشته شده در  2011/8/19ساعت 6:16 PM  توسط عبدالعلی  | 

سلام

 از اینکه ما رو فراموش نمیکنین و همچنان با ما همراهید ازتون متشکرم . ببینم وضعیت کلاس بهتر شده یا ...


English Pronunciation - WORD STRESS - Lesson 3 a

English Pronunciation - WORD STRESS - Lesson 3 b

English Pronunciation - WORD STRESS - Lesson 3 c

English Pronunciation - WORD STRESS - Lesson 3 d

+ نوشته شده در  2011/8/19ساعت 6:14 PM  توسط عبدالعلی  | 

سلام همکلاسیا

این آخرین پست آموزش استرسه. امیدوارم این 16 درس تونسته باشه دانش قبلی شما رو تقویت کنه. 

همیشه منتظر ایده های جدید شما هستم. البته واسه هفته های بعد هم از این درس ها داریم ولی کمی متفاوته. الان نمیگم چیه تا بازم بیای.

English Pronunciation - WORD STRESS - Lesson 4a

English Pronunciation - WORD STRESS - Lesson 4b

English Pronunciation - WORD STRESS - Lesson 4c

English Pronunciation - WORD STRESS - Lesson 4d

+ نوشته شده در  2011/8/19ساعت 6:13 PM  توسط عبدالعلی  | 

REPORTING STATEMENTS


Direct speech


If you want to write what someone has said, the simplest way is to repeat the exact words that they had used in quotation marks (“...”). This is called ‘direct speech’.


 “I really enjoyed the meal,” he said.

She went upstairs and shouted, “Time to get up!”


If you mention the speaker at the end of the sentence, and do not say he or she, you usually reverse the order of the subject and the verb. For example:


 “It’s much too cold to swim,” said Frank.

 “Go back to your room,” said her mother.

 

Indirect speech

You can also report what someone has said without using quotation marks. This is called ‘indirect speech’. The usual way of doing this is to use a clause which begins with + (that). For example:


 “I’m tired!”

He said he was tired.  OR  He said that he was tired.


That is more common in written English and in formal spoken English.

 

Changing from direct to indirect speech


When changing from direct to indirect speech, you need to change the grammar in certain ways.

Verb tense forms usually need to change. In most cases, you change the present tense into the past tense.


She said, “I am staying at the Chelsea Hotel.”

She said that she was staying at the Chelsea Hotel.


If the direct speech is already in the past tense, you need to put the verb even further back in time, using had. This applies to both past tense and present perfect forms of the verb.


He said, “I came by bus.”

He said that he had come by bus.

She said, “I’ve definitely seen John recently”.

She said that she had definitely seen John recently.


However, you do not use this rule if the verb in the direct speech already uses had.


She said, “I had given up hope of seeing him again.”

She said that she had given up hope of seeing him again.


The correct relationship between the verbs in the reporting clause and the verb in the reported clause is called the ‘sequence of tenses’.

If you report something that someone said, which is still true now, you do not need to change the tense of the verb.


 “I want to get married.”

She said she wants to get married.

 “Blue’s my favourite colour.”

She said that blue’s her favourite colour.


If the direct speech contains will, shall, or may, these also need to change.


will →would               shall → should                      may →might


She said, “I will see you soon.”

She said that she would see us soon.


Would, should, could, might, and must do not change.


She said, “I could visit him on Thursday.”

She said she could visit him on Thursday.


You also need to change certain personal pronouns. I and you have to be changed to he and she, unless the original people are still taking part in the conversation. Similarly, my and your need to be changed to his and her.


Mary said to John, “I saw your cat.”

Mary said that she had seen your cat. (if the person who says this is talking to John)

Mary said that she had seen his cat. (if the person who says this is not talking to John)


You also need to change times and places which depend on the speaker’s point of view.


He said, “I saw the car here yesterday.”

He said that he’d seen the car there the day before.


In this case here becomes there because you are in a different place, and yesterday becomes the day before because you are now speaking at a later time.

Similarly, now becomes then, last week becomes the week before, two months ago becomes two months before, tomorrow becomes the next day, and so on. Of course, if the time phrase does not depend on the speaker’s point of view, it can be used without change.


He said, “I bought the car in November 1996.”

He said he had bought the car in November 1996.

 

REPORTING QUESTIONS


When you are changing a question from direct speech into indirect speech, you follow the same kinds of rules as for statements. The only differences are that you need to use a different word to introduce the reported speech, and the word order of the question becomes like that of a statement. You end the sentence with a full stop, not a question mark.


You use if or whether to introduce a ‘yes‑no question’.


I asked, “Does he eat meat?”

I asked whether he ate meat.  OR  I asked if he ate meat.


You introduce questions where there is a choice in the same way ‑ more usually by using whether than by using if.


I asked, “Is it Karen’s book or Michael’s?”

I asked whether it was Karen’s book or Michael’s.


You introduce questions that begin with who, why, what, how etc by using the word which begins the question in direct speech.

Someone asked, “Why doesn’t she resign?”

Someone asked why she didn’t resign.

She asked when he would go back to Japan.


You often mention the person who is being asked the question, by using a pronoun (him, her, them etc) or by mentioning their name.


I asked him if he ate meat.

She asked Michael when he would go back to Japan.

 

REPORTING WHAT SOMEONE HAS TOLD OR ASKED ANOTHER PERSON TO DO


When saying what someone has told or asked another person to do, you usually use an infinitive.

 “Go home!”


She told him to go home.

 “Can you shut the window?”

She asked him to shut the window.


!   Don’t confuse say and tell. Don’t say ‘He said me to go home.’ or ‘He told, Go home!’ Say He told me to go home. or He said, “Go home!

+ نوشته شده در  2011/8/19ساعت 10:13 AM  توسط عبدالعلی  | 

CHAPTER 6. The past continuous, the past perfect and the past perfect continuous
    1. Summary of the uses of the English tenses
    2. The past continuous
         a. Use
         b. Formation
         c. Questions and negative statements
    3. The past perfect
         a. Use
         b. Formation
         c. Questions and negative statements
    4. The past perfect continuous
         a. Use
         b. Formation
         c. Questions and negative statements
    5. Summary of the formation of the English present and past tenses
    6. Emphatic statements
    Exercises

CHAPTER 7. The future tenses
    1. The simple future
         a. Use
         b. Formation
         c. Questions and negative statements
    2. The conjugation expressing determination and compulsion
    3. The present continuous of to go followed by an infinitive
    4. The future continuous
         a. Use
         b. Formation
         c. Questions and negative statements
    5. The future perfect
         a. Use
         b. Formation
         c. Questions and negative statements
    6. The future perfect continuous
         a. Use
         b. Formation
         c. Questions and negative statements
    7. Summary of the formation of the English future tenses
    8. Clauses
         a. Coordinate clauses
         b. Subordinate clauses
         c. The past perfect and the simple past
         d. The use of the present in subordinate clauses to express future actions
    Exercises

CHAPTER 8. Conjugations with the auxiliary would
    1. Uses of the auxiliary would
    2. Formation of conjugations with the auxiliary would
         a. The simple conjugation with the auxiliary would
         b. The continuous conjugation with the auxiliary would
         c. The perfect conjugation with the auxiliary would
         d. The perfect continuous conjugation with the auxiliary would
    3. Summary of the formation of the conjugations with the auxiliary would
    4. The "future in the past"
    Exercises

CHAPTER 9. The subjunctive
    1. Uses of the subjunctive
    2. Formation of the subjunctive
    3. Formal commands and requests
    4. Wishes
         a. An earlier time
         b. The same time
         c. A later time
         d. Summary
         e. Use of the auxiliary could in expressing wishes
    5. Conditions which are false or improbable
         a. Forms of the verb used in the main clause
             i. Referring to present or future time
             ii. Referring to past time
             iii. Summary
             iv. Use of the auxiliary could in sentences containing false or improbable conditions
         b. Forms of the verb used in the subordinate clause
             i. Referring to present or future time
             ii. Referring to past time
             iii. Summary
         c. Changing a statement containing a probable condition into a statement containing an improbable condition
    6. The imperative mood
    Exercises

CHAPTER 10. Modal verbs
    1. Formation of the modal conjugations
         a. Questions
         b. Negative statements
         c. Negative questions
         d. Tag questions
    2. Relationships among the modal auxiliaries
    3. Can and could
    4. May, might and must
    5. Should
    6. Expressions Which are synonymous with the modal auxiliaries
         a. The pronunciation of have to
    7. The use of auxiliaries in tag questions, short answers and ellipsis
         a. Negative tag questions
         b. Affirmative tag questions
         c. Short answers
         d. Ellipsis
    Exercises

CHAPTER 11. Transitive and intransitive verbs
    1. Direct objects
    2. Lay and lie, raise and rise and set and sit
         a. To lay and to lie
         b. To raise and to rise
         c. To set and to sit
    3. Indirect objects
    Exercises

CHAPTER 12. The passive voice
    1. Use of the passive voice
    2. Formation of the indicative mood of the passive voice
         a. The Simple Present indicative
         b. The other indicative tenses
         c. Summary of the formation of the indicative tenses of the passive voice
    3. Questions and negative statements
         a. Questions
         b. Negative statements
         c. Negative questions
    4. Changing the voice of a verb
    5. Changing the voice of a verb while preserving the meaning of a sentence
         a. Changing the verb from the active voice to the passive voice
         b. Changing the verb from the passive voice to the active voice
         c. Changing the voice of a verb which takes both a direct object and an indirect object
    6. The subjunctive mood of the passive voice
         a. Use of the simple present subjunctive
         b. Use of the past forms of the subjunctive
    Exercises

CHAPTER 13. Nouns: The formation of plurals
    1. Proper nouns
    2. Countable nouns
    3. The formation of plurals
         a. Nouns ending in ch, s, sh, x or z
         b. Nouns ending in y
         c. Plurals of proper nouns
         d. Nouns ending in f or fe
         e. Nouns ending in o
         f. Foreign words
         g. Hyphenated nouns
         h. Numbers and letters
         i. Irregular plurals
    Exercises

CHAPTER 14. Singular countable nouns
    1. The use of determiners with singular countable nouns
    2. A and an
    3. The use of a and an before singular countable nouns
         a. A weakened form of one
         b. Naming a profession
         c. Making a general statement
         d. Referring to something not mentioned before
         e. A or an with the meaning of per
    4. The use of the before singular countable nouns
         a. Referring to something mentioned before
         b. Referring to something unique
         c. Referring to something when it is considered obvious what is meant
         d. Referring to something as a class
    Exercises

CHAPTER 15. Plural countable nouns
    1. The absence of a determiner before plural countable nouns
         a. Making a general statement
         b. Referring to something not mentioned before
         c. Naming a profession
    2. The Use of The Before plural countable nouns
         a. Referring to something mentioned before
         b. Referring to something when it is considered obvious what is meant
         c. Names of nationalities
         d. Adjectives referring to classes of people
    3. The use of the with proper nouns
         a. Names of people
         b. Names of places
    4. Nouns used only in the plural
    Exercises

+ نوشته شده در  2011/8/19ساعت 8:30 AM  توسط عبدالعلی  | 

The classic definition of a noun is very well known. Most people have it memorized, "A noun is the name of a person, place or thing." In the definition, a thing also refers to an animal. A noun is a part of speech, a very important one in the English language. However, there are several different types of nouns that make a sentence. All these different types have different rules and different restraints. So, instead of spending more time on vile introductions, let's get on with the crux of the matter.

Different Types of Nouns

There are different types of nouns that are used in grammar and composition in English. They are distinguished on the basis of their nature and character.
Proper Noun
Common Noun
Collective Noun
Abstract Noun
Concrete Noun
Countable Nouns
Uncountable/ Mass Nouns

In this article we will be understanding these types of nouns with examples and explanations.

Types of Nouns : Proper Nouns
Proper nouns are names of people, places or those things that are "one and only". If the proper noun is the name of a very unique and special thing, it will be prefixed by "the". In the following statements, the words in italics are the proper nouns.
Damien is the star football player in the school.
Washington D.C is the capital of the country.
The Sun gives us light and warmth for survival.

In these statements, the first statement contains a proper noun that is the name of a person. The second statement contains a proper noun that is the name of a place. The third statement contains a proper noun that is the name of a thing.

Types of Nouns : Common Nouns
Common nouns are names of common things. A common noun is mostly prefixed with "a", as compared to the "the" for proper nouns. In the following statements, the words in italics are the Common nouns.
A pen is mightier than a sword.
He is just another regular boy.
We went to the park, on a windy summer day.

In the first statement, the common nouns are inanimate objects. In the second statement the common noun refers to a boy. It is a common noun, because there is no specification and he could be any boy. The third statement has the word "day" as a common noun. This is again due to the absence of specifications and the possibility that there could be many days like that one.

Types of Nouns : Collective Nouns
Collective nouns are those that are used to label a group of certain objects, or things. Different objects, animals, people, and things have a different term as a group. Hence, it is important to know these. In the following statements, the words in italics are the Collective nouns.
A pride of lions.
A mob of people.
A bouquet of flowers.

The first statement, refers to a group of a certain animal; lions. Different animals' groups have different names. Like it is always a HERD of cows, etc. The second statement, contains a quintessential word used to describe a group of people. Different situations require the use of different words for the same. Like, in high schools, there are CLIQUES of students. The third statement refers to a group of flowers. Different things have different words to describe them as a group. However, a group of flowers is best expressed as a bouquet.

Types of Nouns : Abstract Nouns
Abstract nouns are names of abstract things. Emotions, ideas and concepts would come in this category. These are words that cannot be definitively described or calculated. In the following statements, the words in italics are the Abstract nouns.
I think I am falling in Love.
The epiphany was overwhelming.
It was his stroke of genius.

In the first statement, the feeling of love is the noun. The second statement shows the idea of an epiphany as an abstract noun. The third statement contains the concept of genius as the noun.

Types of Nouns : Concrete Noun
Concrete nouns are those that are tangible and obvious. The concept of concrete nouns is the exact opposite of that of abstract nouns. In fact, other than abstract nouns, all nouns are concrete nouns. In the following statements, the words in italics are the concrete nouns.
Damien is the star football player in the school.
A pen is mightier than a sword.
A pride of lions.

In the first statement, the proper noun is also a concrete noun as it is a person that is existent and tangible. In the second statement, the concrete nouns are also common nouns. Both objects can be touched and felt. The third statement contains a concrete noun that is a collective noun describing a group of factual animals that can be seen, heard, smelt, touched etc.

Types of Nouns : Countable Nouns
Countable nouns are those that show its numerical status. As in, whether it is single or plural. In the following statement, the words in italics are the countable nouns.
The guys were meeting at the gym.

In the statement, the first noun is in plural state. Which refers to the fact that there is more than one guy subject to the action. The second noun is singular in state. Which shows that there is only one gym subject to the action.

Types of Nouns : Mass Nouns
These nouns are the exact opposite of countable nouns. Hence, they are often known as uncountable nouns. These nouns are words that never let out the numerical status of the subject. In the following statements, the words in italics are the mass nouns.
We need to get them some water.
The wood was burning.
The information was incomplete

The nouns in all the statements refuse to let the reader know if they are singular or plural.

Types of Nouns : Pronouns
These types of nouns are not nouns, really. They are words that replace nouns in order to avoid repetition and redundancy in a statement or conversation. They are on the basis of gender.
HE is the pronoun used for a male noun.
SHE is the pronoun used for a female noun.
IT is the pronouns used for a thing that one does not know the gender of, or that does not have a definite gender.
THEY is a pronoun used for plural nouns.
THIS is a pronoun used for a singular noun that is in the vicinity.
THESE is the pronoun used for plural nouns in the vicinity.
THAT is the pronoun used for a singular noun that is not around.
THOSE is the pronoun used for a plural noun that is not around.
+ نوشته شده در  2011/8/19ساعت 8:14 AM  توسط عبدالعلی  | 

Types of Adjectives

DESCRIPTIVE ADJECTIVE:

These types of adjectives add detail or description to the noun.

[In the following examples, the adjective is bold and the noun is underlined.]

When Tennessee and Connecticut first met in women's basketball in 1995, it was a nice made-for-TV game between an established power and one on the rise.

NICE describes the predicate nominative GAME and ESTABLISHED describes the object of the preposition POWER.

Note: In this sentence, ESTABLISHED is also a participle.

The tall man thought he could reach the top shelf of the bookcase.

TALL describes the subject MAN and TOP describes the direct object SHELF.

After the difficult surgery, the famous doctors to a nap.

DIFFICULT modifies the object of the preposition SURGERY and FAMOUS describes the subject DOCTOR.

A worthwhile rivalry had been born.

WORTHWHILE describes the subject RIVALRY.

Monica said, "Wow, this is a great game."

GREAT describes the predicate nominative GAME.

2. LIMITING ADJECTIVE:

These types of adjectives specify or limit the noun.

[In the following examples, the adjective is bold and the noun is underlined.]

The two teams have met every season since 1932.

TWO tells us how many TEAMS and EVERY tells us how many SEASONS.

Note: It does not describe the teams; it tells us which ones to limit our attention to.

Saturday, Oregon plays USC before what should be a sellout crowd.

SELLOUT tells us what size of crowd. A specific number would also be limiting.

Did Garret see this article that appeared in the paper?

THIS indicates which "limited" article.

Note: In this sentence, THIS is NOT a demonstrative pronoun.

Will you be sitting at the captain's table this evening?

CAPTAIN'S limits what table we are considering.

Note: This type of possessive is called a possessive noun.

This season, the two are meeting on a home-and-home basis, unusual for non-conference rivals.

HOME-AND-HOME limits the basis for meeting.

Note: We use hyphens to connect words that work together to modify the noun.

3. PREDICATE ADJECTIVE:

This is a special type of adjective that follows a linking verb and modifies (directly refers to) the subject of the sentence.

[In the following examples, the predicate adjective is bold and the subject/noun is underlined.]

People are interested in this game.

ARE is a linking verb connecting the subject PEOPLE with its descriptor of equal weight INTERESTED.

Note: The descriptor is an adjective; therefore, it is a predicate adjective. A noun would be a predicate nominative.

Watching the championship was fun.

WAS is a linking verb connecting the subject WATCHING with its descriptor of equal weight FUN.

Note: WATCHING is the form of a verb used as a noun—a gerund.

Don argues that cheering for a team can be nerve-wracking, too.

CAN BE is a linking verb connecting the subject CHEERING with its descriptor of equal weight NERVE-WRACKING.

Note: CHEERING is the form of a verb used as a noun—a gerund.

If you're not careful, the whole group is going to judge you on what you do on this day.

ARE in the contraction YOU'RE is a linking verb connecting the subject YOU with its descriptor of equal weight CAREFUL.

The two teams look very similar in the tempo that they play.

LOOK is a linking verb connecting the subject TEAMS with its descriptor of equal weight SIMILAR.

Note: TO BE is not the only linking verb.

Stan does not seem scared of them.

DOES SEEM is a linking verb connecting the subject STAN with its descriptor of equal weight SCARED.

4. VERBALS AS ADJECTIVES:

Two types of verbals can acts as adjectives. Participles are always adjectives and may end in EN, ED or ING. Infinitives (TO+VERB) may act as adjectives, adverbs or nouns.

[In the following examples, the verbal is bold and the noun it modifies is underlined.]

Playing tough defense, both teams push the ball up the floor and score a lot of points.

PLAYING modifies or describes the subject TEAMS. It is not the verb for the subject, but rather it describes the subject.

Note: PUSH and SCORE are the verbs for the subject TEAMS.

Connecticut, averaging 90.3 points, is winning by an average of 29.

AVERAGING describes CONNECTICUT. It is not the verb for the subject, but rather it describes the subject.

Note: IS WINNING is the verb for the subject CONNECTICUT.

USC, shocked by a loss to OSU in its season opener, has little hope of going to the Rose Bowl.

SHOCKED describes USC. It is not the verb for the subject, but rather it describes the subject.

Note: HAS is the verb for the subject USC.

It will be an interesting game to watch.

TO WATCH modifies the predicate nominative GAME.

5. DEGREES OF ADJECTIVES

Adjectives are used to indicate levels, degrees of intensity or comparison

high ____ base

higher ____ comparative

highest ____ superlative

When comparing two things always use the comparative. For example in a comparison between two people the correct usage would be: Bill is taller. Bill is the tallest would require that there be more than two people.

6. ARTICLES

Some sources identify the articles A, AN, THE as adjectives.

The tempo of the game could reflect a track meet more than a basketball game.

Note: Use "A" before words that begin with a consonant or consonant sounds.

Tennessee no longer has Chamique Holdsclaw, twice the national player of the year.

But the Lady Vols have an outstanding combination in Tamika Catchings, Semeka Randall and Kristen Clement.

Note: Us "An" before words that begin with a vowel or vowel sound
+ نوشته شده در  2011/8/19ساعت 8:12 AM  توسط عبدالعلی  | 

با درود فراوان خدمت شما دوست داران زبان انگلیسی

از این به بعد قصد دارم در این وبلاگ به آموزش لغات پیشرفته بپردازم هر چند ممکن است شما برخی یا تمام آنها را بدانید اما ممکن است افرادی در سطوح پائین تر با این کلمات آشنایی نداشته باشند و لازم باشد که این کلمات را بدانند.

شما هم اگر کلمه ی پیشنهادی دارید در قسمت نظرات بیان کنید تابقیه دوستان هم با کلمات کاربردی بیشتری آشنا شوند.

Here we go again!

 

 Aliment : food, something that nourishes غذا، رزق

He was required by court order to aliment the abandoned family.

Lavish : expended in large quantities; generous; extravagant باشکوه،پرخرج

lavish parties

 presumptuous : arrogant, haughty پررو،گستاخ

He was presumptuous enough to put his hand in my pocket.

smarmy : unctuous , ingratiating چرب و نرم

His smarmy speech left no doubt that he actually felt superior to those he was meant to be praising.
+ نوشته شده در  2011/8/19ساعت 8:6 AM  توسط عبدالعلی  | 

Prenatal : previous to childbirth, prior to childbirth

 پیش زادی ، پیش از تولد

Comprehensive prenatal medical care is vital to ensuring the health of new babies.

Cabal : A conspiratorial group of plotters or intriguers; a secret scheme or plot. توطئه ، دسیسه

She pretended that a wicked plot was being hatched against her, a cabal which would come to a head in the coming days.
+ نوشته شده در  2011/8/19ساعت 8:5 AM  توسط عبدالعلی  | 

WHAT IS A DISJUNCTION?

In English language and grammar, disjunct has a distinct meaning. It is a word or a small phrase added to a sentence that tends to show mood, opinion or emphasis in some way. Alternately, disjuncts may be a comment on what is being said or an expression from the speaker about how truthful something might be. The disjunct usually doesn’t have to be in the sentence and the sentence would be complete without it, though some specific meaning of the writer/speaker could be lost in the process.


There are many words that qualify as disjunct examples. Some words that may be disjuncts include fortunately, unfortunately, hopefully, probably, possibly, maybe, honestly, clearly, briefly, and frankly. There are number of small phrases that are disjunct phrases too and these might include: in my opinion, fortunately for you, in other words, in truth, between you and me, to my amazement, and to tell the truth. It’s easy to see that many more examples could be added and that it’s possible to generate a number of other terms and phrases that would serve as disjuncts in different kinds of sentences.

In addition to generating disjunct words or phrases, it’s fairly simple to come up with sentences that might use them. The following sentence uses a disjunct phrase to comment on the writing process:


It was, in other words, the ugliest cat I had ever seen.


Note the italicized phrase isn’t really necessary to the sentence and it could be said without it. The speaker is really commenting on his or her word choice, which may or may not be appropriate in present writing context. Sometimes it makes sense to remove a phrase that doesn’t belong and write a cleaner sentence.

Another example is the following:


Possibly, I will see you tonight.


Here the term, possibly, should remain in the sentence since it expresses doubt about the speaker’s plans. Without it, the person being addressed might seem surer that the speaker would show up that night. Qualifying potential actions is valuable to avoid misunderstanding.

On the other hand, the next example of a disjunct could be saying too much:


Honestly, I will see you tonight.


The term certainly raises the question as to whether the speaker is in the habit of lying about plans, and use of another word like definitely is not stronger than a simple statement of, “I will see you tonight.” Sometimes using these words is up to the speaker or writer’s style and a matter of discretion, but all conscientious users of the English or other languages that use disjuncts would be benefit from understanding use, so they can make informed language choices.

One matter of confusion can be the term disjunction, which is actually quite different. Disjunctions tend to be either/or statements, like this example: “You can either go to the store or to the movies.” They combine two actions, options, or others that can’t exist together. Choosing one means not choosing the other. In a way, the disjunction is the opposite of conjunction because it doesn’t join two things together; instead it joins two things that can’t be or cannot exist together, offering an element of choice

+ نوشته شده در  2011/8/19ساعت 8:2 AM  توسط عبدالعلی  | 

In linguistics, the theory of universal grammar holds that there are certain fundamental grammatical ideas which all humans possess, without having to learn them. Universal grammar acts as a way to explain how language acquisition works in humans, by showing the most basic rules that all languages have to follow.

The basic idea of universal grammar, that there are foundational rules in common among all humans, has been around since the 13th century. In the following centuries this idea led many philosophers to try to design a perfect language from the ground up, taking into account what they felt were the core principles of all languages.


The most famous theory of the idea of a universal grammar was put forth by the linguist Noam Chomsky in the 1950s. Chomsky held that there was a universal grammar hardwired into the brain of all humans, and that all human languages had evolved on top of that universal grammar, and that children learned their native languages using the universal grammar as a support structure.

One of the main impetuses for the development of a modern theory of universal grammar is the question of how early language learners know that certain phrases are ungrammatical. Children acquire language by listening to native speakers around them. But, by virtue of being proficient speakers, native speakers don’t go around saying everything that is ungrammatical and saying it’s wrong. This is often called the Poverty of Stimulus argument, and universal grammar attempts to explain it by saying that a number of these restrictions are part of a universal grammar.

Universal grammar does not attempt to lay out many blanket statements that hold true for every single language on Earth. If it did that, after all, we would expect most languages to be roughly the same. Instead, we find an incredible range of languages. Instead, what a universal grammar seeks to do is to lay out propositions of the form, “If X is true, then Y will be true.” These structures lay out how all languages develop when faced with certain basic principles. Using these structures, students of universal grammar can attempt to state what word order a language might choose, what phonemes will be present, and other foundational traits of the language.

Another argument commonly leveled against universal grammar is that the theory itself is not actually falsifiable. Although it claims to be able to predict what new languages will be like, the sample size is small enough that when new languages are discovered the rules laid out must sometimes adapt to fit the new data. This would seem to undermine its validity as a strong predictive theory, making it more a cohesive set of observations about what we already know to be true.

+ نوشته شده در  2011/8/19ساعت 7:59 AM  توسط عبدالعلی  | 

Talking about languages

166

Do you speak English

167

Yes, a little.

168

Does your friend speak English

169

Yes, he speaks English perfectly

170

What’s his native language

171

I don’t know what his native language is.

172

How many languages do you speak

173

My friend reads and writes several languages

174

How well do you know French

175

He speaks French with an American accent

176

My parents speak English fluently.

177

Mr. Jones can read French pretty well.

178

Sometime I make mistakes when I speak English.

179

I have a lot of trouble with pronunciation.

180

How is her accent in French

+ نوشته شده در  2011/8/18ساعت 6:39 AM  توسط عبدالعلی  | 

91

What day is today

92

Today is Monday.

93

What day was yesterday

94

Yesterday was Sunday.

95

What day is tomorrow

96

What month is this

97

This is January.

98

Last month was December, wasn’t it

99

Yes, it was.

100

What month is next month?

101

I was in the hospital for several weeks.

102

Where were you on Tuesday?

103

You were here in February, weren’t you

104

No, I wasn’t.

105

Your friend was here a week ago, wasn’t he

+ نوشته شده در  2011/8/17ساعت 12:51 PM  توسط عبدالعلی  | 

Introductions and courtesies =

76

What’s your name

77

My name is Jones.

78

What’s your first name

79

My first nama is Bill.

80

How do you spell your last name

81

Jones. J. O. N. E. S.

82

What’s your friend’s name

83

His name is John Smith

84

John and I are old Friends

85

Are you John’s brother

86

No, I’m not.

87

This is Mr. Jones.

88

How do you do

89

Mrs. Jones, this is Mr. John Smith.

90

Very pleased to meet you.

+ نوشته شده در  2011/8/17ساعت 12:47 PM  توسط عبدالعلی  | 

Identifying people by accupation

61

Who are you

62

I’m a student

63

Who is that over there

64

He’s a student too

65

Is that lady a student

66

No, she isn’t

67

Those men aren’t students, either

68

Am I your teacher

69

Yes, you are.

70

That man is a teacher, isn’t he

71

Yes, he is.

72

Who are those people

73

Maybe they’re farmers

74

Aren’t they students

75

I really don’t know

+ نوشته شده در  2011/8/17ساعت 12:44 PM  توسط عبدالعلی  | 

Identifying objects                                              

 

46

What are these

47

Those are books

48

Where are the books

49

There they are

50

These are my pencils

51

Where are your pens

52

They’re over there.

53

Are these your pens

54

Yes, there are.

55

Those are mine.

56

These are your books, aren’t they

57

No, they aren’t.

58

They’re not mine.

59

These are mine and those are yours.

60

Those aren’t your pens, are they

+ نوشته شده در  2011/8/17ساعت 12:36 PM  توسط عبدالعلی  | 

Identifying objects

31

What’s this

این چیست؟

32

That’s a book

آن یک کتاب است

33

Is this your book

آیا این کتاب مال شماست؟

34

No, that’s not my book

نه خیر آن کتاب مال من نیست

35

Whose book is this

این کتاب مال کیست؟

36

That’s your book

آنکتاب مال شماست

37

And what’s that

وآن چیست؟

38

Is that a book

آیا آن یک کتاب است؟

39

No, it isn’t

نه خیر ان نیست

40

It’s a pencil

آن یک پنسل است

41

Is it yours

آیا آن مال شماست؟

42

Yes, it’s mine

بله آن مال من است

43

Where’s the door

درکجاست؟

44

There it is.

اینجااست

45

Is this book his

آیا این کتاب مال اوست؟

+ نوشته شده در  2011/8/17ساعت 6:22 AM  توسط عبدالعلی  | 

Classroom expressions

1

Come in, please.

لطفا داخل بیایید

2

Sit down.

بنشینید

3

Stand up, please.

لطفا استاد شوید

4

Open your book, please.

لطفا کتاب خودرابازنماید

5

Close your book, please.

لطفا کتاب خودرا ببندید

6

Don’t open your book.

لطفا کتاب خودرابازکنید

7

Do you understand?

آیامی فهمی؟

8

Yes, I understand.

بله فهمیدم

9

No, I don’t understand.

نه خیر نفهمیدم

10

Listen and repeat.

گوش کن وتکرارکن

12

Now read, please.

فعلا بخوانید

13

That’s fine.

خوب است

14

It’s time to begin.

حالا وقت است آن که شروع کنیم

15

Let’s begin now.

بیایید فعلا شروع کنیم

16

This is lesson one.

این درس اول است

+ نوشته شده در  2011/8/17ساعت 6:19 AM  توسط عبدالعلی  | 

Greetings = Salam.

1

Hello.

2

Good morning.

3

I’m John Smith.

4

Are you Bill Jones

5

Yes I am.

6

How are you

7

Fine, thanks.

8

How is Helen

9

She’s very well, thank you.

10

Good afternoon Mr. Green.

11

Good evening Mrs. Brown.

12

How are you this evening

13

Good night, John.

14

Good-bye, Bill.

15

See you tomorrow.

                                  

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

+ نوشته شده در  2011/8/15ساعت 7:37 PM  توسط عبدالعلی  | 

Expressing Thanks

بیان تشکرات

۰۰۹۳۷۹۶۱۶۲۷۵۲
Expressing Thanks

بیان تشکر ها

Thanks

Thank you

I appreciate it.

تشکر

از شما متشکرم

من آن را تحسین می کنم

Thanks for the tour.

Thanks for your time.

Thank you for the nice gift.

I appreciate your kindness.

برای تور متشکرم.

برای وقت گذاشتن شما متشکرم.

از شما بخاطر این کادو زیبا متشکرم. - از هدیه قشنگتان متشکرم.

من از محبت شما قدر دانی می کنم.


+ نوشته شده در  2011/8/15ساعت 4:1 AM  توسط عبدالعلی  | 

Greetings

خوش آمد گویی - سلام و احوال پرسی

1. Hi.

    Hello.

1. سلام. چطوری.

    سلام

2. Good morning.

    Good afternoon.

    Good evening.

2. صبح بخیر

    بعد از ظهر بخیر

    عصر بخیر

3. How are you

    How are you doing

   How ya doing? (Informal)

3. حالت چطوره ؟

    حالت چطوره ؟

    چطوری ( غیر رسمی )

4. Fine. How about you

5. Okay. Thanks.

4. خوبم. شما چطورید ؟

5. خوبم. متشکرم.


 

+ نوشته شده در  2011/8/15ساعت 3:57 AM  توسط عبدالعلی  | 

Giving Information

اطلاعات دادن

1. Jeremy is from Ohio.

2. Kelly is a saleswoman.

3. He’s a university student.

4. Ronda lives in Texas.

5. I work at a restaurant.

6. I live in Florida.

8. Where are you from?

9. What is your occupation?

Oh really? What part of Ohio

Is that right? What company

Oh. What university?

Really? What city (in Texas)

Oh really? Which restaurant?

Oh yeah? Where in Florida

I’m from Delaware.

I’m a police officer.

Columbus.

Microsoft.

Harvard.

Dallas.

Angelo Meroni’s

Orlando.


1. جرمی اهل اوهایو است.

2. کلی یک خانم فروشنده است.

3. او یک دانشجو است.

4. رواندا در تگزاس زندگی می کند.

5. من در یک رستوران کار می کنم.

6. من در فلوریدا زندگی می کنم.

8. شما اهل کجائید ؟

9. شغل شما چیست ؟

اوه واقعا ؟ کدام قسمت اوهایو ؟

اینطور است ؟ کدام شرکت ؟

اوه ؟ کدام دانشگاه ؟

واقعا ؟ کدام شهر ( در تگزاس ) ؟

اوه واقعا ؟ کدام رستوران ؟

اوه بله ؟ کجای فلوریدا.

من اهل دلاوار هستم.

من یک افسر پلیس هستم.

کلمبوس.

مایکروسافت.

هاروارد.

دالاس.

آنجلو مرونیز.

اورلاندو.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

+ نوشته شده در  2011/8/15ساعت 3:53 AM  توسط عبدالعلی  | 

Suffixes



See also Common Roots.

Suffixes

Suffix Part of Speech Examples
-er, -or noun teacher, director
-ance, -ence noun difference, attendance
-ant, -ent noun deviant, President
-ee noun employee, trainee
-ess noun stewardess, waitress
-ian noun electrician, beautician
-ism noun Communism, theism
-ist noun chemist, artist
-ity noun rarity, velocity
-ment noun achievement, astonishment
-ness noun happiness, fondness
-ship noun relationship, friendship
-tion, -ation noun action, coronation
-ate verb deviate, create
-ify verb typify, solidify
-ize verb tenderize, authorize
-able, -ible adjective reliable, capable, sensible
-al adjective comical, radical
-ful adjective wonderful, helpful
-ish adjective impish, sheepish
-ive adjective creative, sensitive
-ous, ious adjective dangerous, impervious
-ly adverb quickly, happily

+ نوشته شده در  2011/8/15ساعت 3:47 AM  توسط عبدالعلی  | 

Basic Food


See also: Situations: Likes and Dislikes

Suggested words:

Basic Food and Drinks
Fruits
Vegetables
Other
+ نوشته شده در  2011/8/15ساعت 3:37 AM  توسط عبدالعلی  | 

Verb List

۰۰۹۳۷۹۶۱۶۲۷۵۲

Verb List

Regular Verbs

base -s form past past participle -ing form notes

call calls called called calling
clean cleans cleaned cleaned cleaning

look looks looked looked looking 1
talk talks talked talked talking 1

end ends ended ended ending 2
wait waits waited waited waiting 2

kiss kisses kissed kissed kissing 3
wash washes washed washed washing 3

live lives lived lived living 4
love loves loved loved loving 4

beg begs begged begged begging 5
sin sins sinned sinned sinning 5

play plays played played playing
stay stays stayed stayed staying

cry cries cried cried crying 6
studies studied studied studying 6

die dies died died dying
tie ties tied tied tying

Notes:

1. Pronunciation differences in past/past participle after /p, s, k, f/ sounds


2. Pronunciation differences in past/past participle after /t, d/ sounds

3. Spelling and pronunciation differences in –s form after /s, sh, ch, z/ sounds

4. Dropping of “silent e” with –ing endings

5. Doubled consonants after “short” vowel sounds

6. Spelling differences when “y” is preceded by a consonant


Irregular Verbs

< td>< td>

base -s form past past participle -ing form

cut cuts cut cut cutting
fit fits fit fit fitting
hit hits hit hit hitting
let lets let let letting
put puts put put putting
quit quits quit quit quitting
set sets set set setting
shut shuts shut shut shutting
split splits split split splitting
upset upsets upset upset upsetting

burst bursts burst burst bursting
cast casts cast cast casting
cost costs cost cost costing*
hurt hurts hurt hurt hurting

spread spreads spread spread spreading

knit knits knit/knitted knit/knitted knitting

sit sits sat sat sitting
spit spits spat/spit spat/spit spitting

begin begins began begun beginning
swim swims swam swum swimming

ring rings rang rung ringing
sing sings sang sung singing
spring springs sprang sprung springing

cling clings clung clung clinging
fling flings flung flung flinging
sling slings slung slung slinging
sting stings stung stung stinging
swing swings swung swung swinging
wring wrings wrung wrung wringing

hang hangs hung/hanged** hung/hanged hanging

drink drinks drank drunk sinking
shrink shrinks shrank shrunk shrinking
stink stinks stank stunk stinking

think thinks thought thought thinking
bring brings brought brought bringing

buy buys bought bought buying
seek seeks sought sought seeking
fight fights fought fought fighting

catch catches caught caught catching
teach teaches taught taught teaching

creep creeps crept crept creeping
keep keeps kept kept keeping
sleep sleeps slept slept sleeping
sweep sweeps swept swept sweeping
weep weeps wept wept weeping

bleed bleeds bled bled bleeding
breed breeds bred bred breeding
feed feeds fed fed feeding
flee flees fled fled fleeing
lead leads led led leading
speed speeds sped/speeded sped/speeded speeding

meet meets met met meeting

bend bends bent bent bending
lend lends lent lent lending
send sends sent sent sending
spend spends spent spent spending

deal deals dealt dealt dealing
feel feels felt felt feeling
kneel kneels knelt knelt kneeling

dream dreams dreamt/dreamed dreamt/dreamed dreaming
mean means meant meant meaning

spill spills spilt/spilled spilt/spilled spilling

build builds built built building

burn burns burnt/burned burnt/burned burning

hold holds held held holding

sell sells sold sold selling
tell tells told told telling

find finds found found finding
grind grinds ground ground grinding
wind winds wound wound winding

break breaks broke broken breaking
choose chooses chose chosen choosing
freeze freezes froze frozen freezing
speak speaks spoke spoken speaking
steal steals stole stolen stealing
wake wakes woke woken waking
weave weaves wove woven weaving

arise arises arose arisen arising
drive drives drove driven driving
ride rides rode ridden riding
rise rises rose risen rising
write writes wrote written writing

bite bites bit bitten biting
hide hides hid hidden hiding
slide slides slid slid sliding

get gets got gotten getting
forget forgets forgot forgotten forgetting

give gives gave given giving
forgive forgives forgave forgiven forgiving
forbid forbids forbade/forbad forbidden forbidding

fall falls fell fallen falling

swell swells swelled swollen swelling

dive dives dove/dived dived diving

blow blows blew blown blowing
fly flies flew flown flying
grow grows grew grown growing
know knows knew known knowing
throw throws threw thrown throwing

draw draws drew drawn drawing
withdraw withdraws withdrew withdrawn withdrawing

show shows showed shown showing

eat eats ate eaten eating

beat beats beat beaten beating

take takes took taken taking
forsake forsakes forsook forsaken forsaking
mistake mistakes mistook mistaken mistaking
shake shakes shook shaken shaking

make makes making

swear swears swore sworn swearing
wear wears wore worn wearing
tear tears tore torn tearing
bear bears bore born bearing

stand stands stood stood standing
understand understands understood understood understanding

become becomes became become becoming
come comes came come coming
run runs ran run running

dig digs dug dug digging
spin spins spun spun spinning
stick sticks stuck stuck sticking

strike strikes struck struck/stricken striking

do does did done doing
go goes went gone going

have has had had having

hear hears heard heard hearing

lay lays laid laid laying
pay pays paid paid paying
say says said said saying

lie lies lay lain lying

light lights lit/lighted lit/lighted lighting

lose loses lost lost losing

leave leaves left left leaving

prove proves proved proven/proved proving

read reads read read reading

see sees saw seen seeing

sew sews sewed sewn/sewed sewing

shave shaves shaved shaven/shaved shaving

shine shines shined/shone shined/shone shining

shoot shoots < td> shot shooting

win wins won won winning

be is/are/am was/were been being



* "costing" does not usually occur in the –ing form

** “hang” has two different meanings and thus two usages in past/past participle

+ نوشته شده در  2011/8/14ساعت 5:10 AM  توسط عبدالعلی  | 

Wh - Questions



Wh- Questions
۰۰۹۳۷۹۶۱۶۲۷۵۲

Wh- Questions allow a speaker to find out more information about topics. They are as follows:

    When?

    Where?

    Who?

    Why?

    How?

    What?

    Time

    Place

    Person

    Reason

    Manner

    Object/Idea/Action



    Other words can also be used to inquire about specific information:

      Which (one)?

      Whose?

      Whom?

      How much?

      How many?

      How long?

      How often?

      How far?

      What kind (of)?

      Choice of alternatives

      Possession

      Person (objective formal)

      Price, amount (non-count)

      Quantity (count)

      Duration

      Frequency

      Distance

      Description



    The “grammar” used with wh- questions depends on whether the topic being asked about is the “subject” or “predicate” of a sentence. For the subject pattern, simply replace the person or thing being asked about with the appropriate wh-word.

      (Someone has my baseball.)

      (Something is bothering you.)

      Who has my baseball?

      What is bothering you?



    For the predicate pattern, wh- question formation depends on whether there is an “auxiliary” verb in the original sentence. Auxiliary or “helping” verbs are verbs that precede main verbs. Auxiliary verbs are italicized in the following sentences.

      I can do it.
      They are leaving.
      I have eaten my lunch.
      I should have finished my homework.
    To make a question using the predicate pattern, first form a yes/no question by inverting the subject and (first) auxiliary verb. Then, add the appropriate wh- word to the beginning of the sentence.

      (You will leave some time.) … will you leave
      When will you leave?
      (He is doing something.) … is he doing
      What is he doing?
      (They have been somewhere.) … have they been
      Where have they been?
    If there is no auxiliary and the verb is “be,” invert the subject and verb, then add the appropriate wh- word to the beginning of the sentence.
      (He is someone.) … is he
      Who is he?
      (The meeting was some time) … was the meeting
      When was the meeting?
    If there is no auxiliary and the verb is not “be,” add do to the beginning of the sentence. Then add the appropriate wh-question word. Be sure to “transfer” the tense and number from the main verb to the word do.
      (You want something.) do you want
      What do you want?
      (You went somewhere.) did you go (past tense)
      Where did you go?
      She likes something.) does she like (third person –s)
      What does she like?

+ نوشته شده در  2011/8/14ساعت 5:3 AM  توسط عبدالعلی  | 

Yes/No Questions

۰۰۹۳۷۹۶۱۶۲۷۵۲

Yes/No Questions

There are many types of questions in English. The easiest are questions that can be
answered “yes” or “no.”

    A: Are you from around here?
    B: Yes, I am.

    A: Do you come here often?
    B: Yes, I do.

    A: Can I buy you a drink?
    B: No, thanks.

    A: Are you married?
    B: Yes, I am.

To form a question from a statement, first count the number of verbs.

    John is a doctor. One verb: is (be)
    Jane drives a sports car. One verb: drives
    Joan played basketball last night. One verb: played
    Jan is eating her dinner. Two verbs: is eating
    June has rented an apartment. Two verbs: has rented
    Jen has been living there since 1969. Three verbs: has been living

If there is one verb in the statement and the verb is a form of be, simply switch the
positions of the subject and verb.

    Statement Question
    John is a doctor. Is John a doctor?
    The Jensens are here. Are the Jensens here?

If there are two verbs, simply switch the positions of the subject and first verb.

    Statement Question
    Jan is eating dinner. Is Jan is eating dinner?
    June has rented an apartment. Has June rented an apartment?
    Jen has been living here since 1969. Has Jen been living here since 1969?

If there is one verb, and the verb is not a form of be, the process is more complex.

1. Add Do to the beginning of the sentence.

    The Johnsons live in that house. Do the Johnsons live in that house?

2. If the main verb “carries” a third person singular s, move the s to Do, making it Does.

    Jane drives a car. Do Jane drives a car? (Not finished yet!)
    Does Jane drive a car? (Good question!)

3. If the main verb “carries" past tense, move the past tense to Do, making it Did.

    Joan played basketball last night. Do Joan played basketball? (Not finished yet!)
    Did Joan play basketball? (Good question!)

In conversation, most questions are asked of the second person (you) and answered in
the first (I).

    A: Are you from California?
    B: No, I’m from Oregon. Are you?
    A: Yes, I’m from Hollywood.
    B: Do you know any movie stars?
    A: No, I don’t go out at night.

In British English, the main verb have sometimes functions like be in questions. This is
not common in American English.

    Statement Question
    You have a pet ferret. Have you a pet ferret? (British)
    Do you have a pet ferret? (American
+ نوشته شده در  2011/8/14ساعت 5:0 AM  توسط عبدالعلی  | 

Articles


۰۰۹۳۷۹۶۱۶۲۷۵۲
Articles

Article Chart for more information.)

Singular count nouns cannot stand alone in a sentence.

    Apple is on table. (Wrong!)

They must be preceded by one of the following:

    1. An article (the, a, an)

      An apple is on the table.
      The professor gave us a test.

    2. A number or quantifier (one, another, the other, each, every, either, neither)

      One man was in Chicago.
      Neither man was with his wife.
      The other man was in Saint Paul.
      Either man could be in trouble.

      Note: Never use the and another, each, every, neither, either together:

        The another man was in Milwaukee. (Wrong!)

    3. This, that, some*

      This artist created that painting.
      Some woman came to see you. (*unidentified subject)

    4. A possessive pronoun or noun.

      It is my bicycle now.
      It was John’s bicycle.

      Note: Do not use articles and possessives together.

        The Mary’s bicycle was stolen. (Wrong!)

Proper nouns have their own article usage.

    Don Smith lived next door to Dr. Zimbango.
    The Empire State Building is in New York City.

Non-count and plural nouns can be used without articles only in the “generic” sense:

    Cats are enemies of dogs.
    Water is essential for survival.

+ نوشته شده در  2011/8/14ساعت 4:58 AM  توسط عبدالعلی  | 

Adverbs

Adverbs

Adverbs are used to describe actions. They may come before or after a verb, but not between a verb and its object.

    Mrs.Jenner sang softly. (Most common word order.)

    Mrs. Jenner softly sang. (Also possible.)

    Mrs. Jenner softly sang a lullaby.

    Mrs. Jenner sang a lullaby softly.

    Mrs. Jenner sang softly a lullaby. (Not correct.)

Adverbs may come between a main verb and its auxiliaries.

    Mrs. Jenner is softly singing a lullaby.

    Mrs. Jenner softly is singing a lullaby. (Not correct.)

    Mrs. Jenner has been softly singing that lullaby for a long time.

Some time and frequency adverbs are “movable.” That is, they can be placed at various points in a sentence.

    Yesterday I visited the dentist.

    I visited the dentist yesterday.

    Jack Prompt is here already.

    Jack Prompt is already here.

Caution:

Even though some adverbs can be used in certain sentence positions, others can not.

    I yesterday visited the dentist. (Not okay.)

    I already visited the dentist. (Okay.)

    Already I visited the dentist. (Not okay.)

Adverbs such as quite, very, really, extremely, and absolutely are used to modify adjectives and other adverbs.

They come directly before the words they describe.

    Greg is quite happy with his new boss.

    Sue eats very slowly.

    You’re absolutely right!

Many adverbs can be formed by adding –ly to adjectives:

    Carl is a quick runner.

    Carl runs quickly.

Some adverbs are identical to adjectives in form. Others are completely different.

    Carl is a fast runner. (Adjective)

    Carl runs fast. (Adverb)

    Jill is a good student. (Adjective)

    Jill studies well. (Adverb)

Be careful with words like hardly and lately, which have no relation to the adjectives/adverbs hard and late.

    Jacob kicked the ball hard.

    Jacob hardly kicked the ball.

    Trudy came to class late.

    Trudy hasn’t come to class lately.

    He kicked the ball with tremendous force.)

    (He barely touched the ball.)

    (She was tardy.)

    (She hasn’t been to class recently.)

+ نوشته شده در  2011/8/14ساعت 4:53 AM  توسط عبدالعلی  | 

Adjectives



Adjectives


Adjectives are used to describe nouns. They give more details or information about the nouns they are associated with.

    A: Tell me about your boyfriend

    B: Well, he is tall, dark, and handsome.

    A: Sounds like mine.

Adjectives can be used to answer the questions “What kind (of) … or Which one?”

    A: Hi. I’m calling about the car you’re selling…

    B: It’s a great car. (It’s) in excellent condition.

    A: What kind of seats does it have?

    B: They’re very comfortable seats, (soft, plush, just like a sofa.)

    A: Uh. I think I’ll sleep on it.

    A: Hand me a book.

    B: Which one do you want?

    A: The red book. The red one.

Adjectives come before the nouns they modify (not after).

    Three happy hippies lived in the Heartquake Hotel.

    WRONG: Three hippies happy lived in the Heartquake Hotel.

Adjectives can also be used with linking verbs to describe the subject of a sentence.

When used in this manner, the adjective(s) come after the linking verb.

    My mother is tall and slender.

    WRONG: My mother tall and slender. (No linking verb.)

Seem, become, appear, and verbs of perceptioncan also be used as linking verbs. Note how they are used with adjectives in the following. Can you identify the linking verbs and the adjectives?

    The journey seemed long. (It appeared strenuous and boring.)

    You smell nice today. What kind of cologne are you wearing?

    A: What do you want to do this weekend? Bowling…Shopping…A movie?

    B: Bowling sounds good.

    CAUTION/BE CAREFUL:

    Tom looked greedy. (He appeared to be a greedy person.)

    The adjective greedy is used to describe Tom.

    Tom looked greedily at the pie on the table. (He saw it and wanted it for himself.)

    The adverb greedily is used to describe Tom’s action.

Adjectives are the same for all nouns. They do not change for plurals.

    Example: Three tired tigers tried to tie a triangular tie.

      Not: Not three tireds tigers…

۰۰۹۳۷۹۶۱۶۲۷۵۲

+ نوشته شده در  2011/8/14ساعت 4:49 AM  توسط عبدالعلی  | 

Count/Non-Count Nouns

Count/Non-Count Nouns

Count nouns have two forms: singular and plural. They can be used with numbers and quantifying expressions such as many, several, and few.

    One potato two potatoes several potatoes few potatoes

When used as subjects in present tense sentences, count nouns require the –s form of the verb in the singular and the base form of the verb in the plural.

    The dog sleeps. The dogs sleep. The bear has large claws.

Non-count nouns have only one form. When used as subjects in present tense sentences, non-count nouns require the –s form of the verb.

    Juice contains many vitamins. Honesty is the best policy.

Some nouns can be either count or non-count.

    Job experience is essential.

    Milk contains calcium.

    Some experiences can be funny.

    Two milks, please. (informal)

Both count and non-count nouns can be quantified. That is, they can be used with expressions which divide them into parts or groups which can be counted. For example,

    Two apples
    One cookie

    milk
    sugar

    Two bags of apples
    A box of cookies

    Two cartons of milk
    A cup of sugar

Sometimes a non-count noun is used to indicate a “group” of items, whereas individual items within the group are countable. For example,

    Non-count

    Money

    Time

    Clothing

    Furniture

    Luggage

    Count

    dollars, bills, fives, cents, dimes, coins

    years, months, days, hours, minutes

    dresses, pants, shirts, socks, shoes

    tables, chairs, sofas, lamps

    suitcases, briefcases, bags, carry-ons

۰۰۹۳۷۹۶۱۶۲۷۵۲

+ نوشته شده در  2011/8/14ساعت 4:46 AM  توسط عبدالعلی  | 

Everyday vs. Every Day

Everyday vs. Every Day

Explanation

Everyday is an adjective meaning "daily."

Every day is a time expression meaning "each day" or "regularly."

Examples

Note the difference in the following sentences:

1. Jane goes to class every day (each day)

2. Jane has an everyday class. (a daily class)

Common Errors

The most common error is writing "every day" as one word (everyday) as in the following sentences:

1. I used to jog three miles everyday (Incorrect)

2. I used to jog three miles every day. (Correct)

۰۰۹۳۷۹۶۱۶۲۷۵۲

+ نوشته شده در  2011/8/14ساعت 4:41 AM  توسط عبدالعلی  | 

Conjunctions and Linking Words

Conjunctions and Linking Words

Coordinators

    Coordinators connect elements of equal importance.

    S + V , but
    S + V
    (and, but, so, or, nor, for*, yet)
    S + V and V

    S and S + V

    N and N

    Adj. and Adj.

    Phrase and Phrase

    Can be used in a series: A, B, C, or D


Subordinators

    Subordinators connect elements of unequal importance. One clause is not as
    strong as the other.

    S + V although S + V (although, even though, because, since*,
    when, while, before*, after*, whenever,
    wherever*, if, unless, whether…[or not]
    as, as [adjective] as, so that, whereas
    anywhere*, anytime*)
    Although S + V , S + V


Sentence Connectors

    Sentence Connectors connect paragraphs or show relationship between very
    different ideas.

    S + V . However, S + V (however, therefore, thus, moreover,
    nevertheless, first*, then*, next*, still*
    S + V ; however, S + V besides, consequently, furthermore)


Prepositions

    Prepositions show relationship among elements of a sentence.
    They are followed by noun phrases only and cannot take on a S + V.

    S + V (prep. phrase) (during, after*, before*, in, on, at
    despite, in spite of, for*, since*, by
    (Prep. phrase), S + V like, except, but*, about, to*, from
    between [A and B], among, with
    (Prep. phrase) V + S (unusual) within, without, beside, near, next to)

    * These words have more than one function. ۰۰۹۳۷۹۶۱۶۲۷۵۲
+ نوشته شده در  2011/8/14ساعت 4:38 AM  توسط عبدالعلی  | 

Building Sentences

Remember, the S - V relationship is at the “heart” of every sentence. All sentences are
built around this core.

To give a sentence more substance, you may enhance the subject or verb:


    (VERB enhancements)

1. Change the verb in tense or aspect or a combination of the two.

    He eats. (simple present)
    He will eat. (future/modal)
    He is eating. (continuous)
    He has eaten. (perfect)
    He has been eating. (combination)
    He should have been eating. (combination)

2. Add an adverb or adverb phrase, or prepositional phrase.

    He should have eaten already/ by now.
    He was eating in the kitchen.

3. Add an adverbial clause.

    He was eating when the bus arrived.

4. Add a participial phrase.

    Having finished his homework, he ate.


    (SUBJECT enhancements)

5. Change the noun to a pronoun or vice versa.

    He eats.
    John eats.

6. Add an article, demonstrative, or possessive.

    The man eats.
    This man eats.
    His father eats.


Note: Subjects and Objects may be enhanced in similar ways.


Subject Object


7. Add an object.

John eats rice.
The man eats an apple.

8. Add an adjective or adjectives.

The handsome man eats. The man eats the big, red apple.

9. Add a prepositional phrase.

The man in the kitchen eats. The man eats an apple from the bowl.

10. Add a relative (adjective) clause.

The man who lives next door eats. The man ate the apple that I bought.

11. Use quantifiers.

Some of the men eat. They eat some of the apples.

12. Use a noun clause.

Whoever gets here first can eat. He eats whichever apple he chooses.



Enhance both the subject and the verb to make sentences more interesting.

    The man who lives on the corner is eating his lunch now.
    The men from the health club eat every day after working out.
    The tall, green men from Mars are eating tuna sandwiches.
    Some of the men ate the apples (that) I left on the table.
    Whenever he feels like exercising, the fat man eats a huge meal instead.

    Basic Sentence Structures

    S-V

    He sleeps.

    S-LV-N

    He is a doctor.

    S-V-O

    She eats rice.

    S-LV-Adj

    The doctor is sick.

    S-V-IO-DO

    She told him a lie.

    S-LV-Adv

    The doctor is here.

۰۰۹۳۷۹۶۱۶۲۷۵۳

+ نوشته شده در  2011/8/14ساعت 4:35 AM  توسط عبدالعلی  | 

Basic Sentence Structure

Basic Sentence Structure

There are five basic patterns around which most English sentences are built.* They are
as follows:

S-V Subject-Verb John sleeps.
Jill is eating.
Jack will arrive next week.
S-V-O Subject-Verb-Object I like rice.
She loves her job.
He’s eating an orange.
S-V-Adj Subject-Verb-Adjective He is funny.
The workers are lazy.
Karen seems angry.
S-V-Adv Subject-Verb-Adverb Jim is here.
Flowers are everywhere.
No one was there.
S-V-N Subject-Verb-Noun She is my mom.
The men are doctors.

Mr. Jones is the teacher.
At the heart of every English sentence is the Subject-Verb relationship. Other elements can
be added to make a sentence more interesting, but they are not essential to its formation.


The following sentences are examples of the S-V pattern.

She sleeps. Core sentence
She sleeps soundly. An adverb is added to describe how she sleeps.
She sleeps on the sofa. A prepositional phrase is added to tell where she sleeps.
She sleeps every afternoon. A time expression is added to tell when she sleeps.
She is sleeping right now. Verb tense is changed, but S-V relationship remains the same.
Mary will sleep later. Subject is named and another tense is used.
The dogs are sleeping in the garage. New subject may require a different form of the verb.
Note: Any action verb can be used with this sentence pattern.


The following sentences are examples of the S-V-O pattern.

They like rice. Core sentence
The people like rice. Specific subject
The friendly people like rice. Subject modified with an adjective
The people in the restaurant like rice. Subject modified with an adjective
The people like boiled rice. Object modified with an adjective
The people like hot, white rice. Object modified with more than one adjective
Note: Only transitive action verbs can be used with this sentence pattern.


The following sentences are examples of the S-V-Adj pattern.

He is fine. Basic sentence with “be” verb
He seems happy. Basic sentence with another linking verb
Jordan is tall, dark and handsome. Series of adjectives
He appears very comfortable. Adverb or intensifier added
George became sick last night. Different tense and linking verb
Note: Only linking verbs can be used with this sentence pattern.


The following sentences are examples of the S-V-Adv pattern.

The teacher is here. Basic sentence
The teacher is over there. Using an adverb phrase
Teachers are everywhere. Plural noun and verb used
The teachers are in the lobby. Prepositional phrase functioning as adverb
Note: Only linking verbs can be used with this sentence pattern.


The following sentences are examples of the S-V-N pattern.

The man is a doctor. Basic sentence
The women are doctors. Using plural noun and verb
My father is a nice guy. Modified subject and complement
My grandparents are senior citizens. Modified plural subject and complement
Note: Only linking verbs can be used with this sentence pattern.


*Other, less common structures are dealt with in another unit.  

+ نوشته شده در  2011/8/14ساعت 4:32 AM  توسط عبدالعلی  |